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Impact phénotypique des réarrangements chromosomiques et évolution des génomes de levures

Abstract : The aim of this work was to assess the impact of chromosomal rearrangements on the evolution of yeast genomes with two approaches. The first approach consisted in retracing past rearrangements during the evolution of Saccharomycotina yeast genomes. We have built a phylogenetic tree of 66 genomes gathered from public databases, then reconstructed the structure of all ancestral genomes of these species. By comparing the structure of reconstructed ancestral genomes, we have inferred 5150 past rearrangements. We showed that depending on the clades, genomes tend to evolve mostly by inversion or by translocation. In addition, we showed that chromosomal rearrangements and non-synonymous mutations tend to accumulate at a coordinated pace during evolution. The second approach aimed at quantifying the phenotypic impact of structural variations of chromosomes (SVs) in terms of vegetative growth and meiotic viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We developed a technique to induce easily targeted SVs in the genome of S. cerevisiae by inducing two chromosomal breaks with CRISPR/Cas9 and providing the cells with chimerical donor oligonucleotides to repair the split chromosomes by homologous recombination. We have then adapted this technique to induce multiple random SVs in a single step. The phenotypic impact of obtained variants on vegetative growth and on spore viability was quantified. These results show that even balanced chromosomal rearrangements that do not affect coding sequence generate a wide phenotypic diversity that contributes to the adaptation of organisms to their environment.
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Aubin Fleiss. Impact phénotypique des réarrangements chromosomiques et évolution des génomes de levures. Génomique, Transcriptomique et Protéomique [q-bio.GN]. Sorbonne Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SORUS491⟩. ⟨tel-02614090⟩

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