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Transformation des paysages et dynamiques de la biodiversité végétale. Les écotones, un concept clé pour l'étude des végétations post-culturales. L'exemple de la commune d'Aussois (Savoie)

Abstract : Ecotone became a key concept in ecology, mainly studied as global changes indicator. We propose to extend its use to studying human-managed areas (mountain mowed meadows to various degrees of abandonment) as early indicator of frontal colonizations in abandoned parcels. The cartographic interface, as boundary between two charted units of vegetation, allows the sampling stratification based on landscape ecology. The physiognomical interface, identified at a vegetation level, allows positioning of perpendicular transects of 4 m2 juxtaposed plots. Ecotone introduces new levels : space, temporal and functional, which is highlighted by an ascending hierarchical clustering of plots' flora. Ecotone is defined under two states :constrained ecotone: one of the parcels in contact is still managed (mown) and the vegetation dynamics cannot be realized ; discontraint ecotone : both parcels are no more managed at various degrees and colonization occured from less managed towards more managed parcels.This original approach enables us to propose different ecotones evolution perspective by the analysis from various functional descriptors (width, interface distance, specific richness, species strategy...) and to propose suitable space management suggestions.The biodiversity is now a mediatic concept. On a purpose of a better knowledge and a durable management of "commune" species floristic richness, the example of Aussois mowed meadows flora shows the interest of a four specific richness levels (specific, local, total and original). Monopolistic herbaceous population extension (Brachypodium pinnatum) is used as a model and a tool of increasing awereness for erosion risk of mowed meadows flora biodiversity and landscape modifications at a "commune" level.
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S. Vanpeene Bruhier. Transformation des paysages et dynamiques de la biodiversité végétale. Les écotones, un concept clé pour l'étude des végétations post-culturales. L'exemple de la commune d'Aussois (Savoie). Sciences de l'environnement. Doctorat Sciences de l'environnement, ENGREF Paris, 1998. Français. ⟨tel-02578744⟩

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