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Contamination par les polluants organiques persistants et émergents une étude de cas : la rivière Kadicha

Abstract : The river contamination with persistent and emerging organic pollutants has raised an increasing concern about their impact on exposed ecosystems. Small Mediterranean coastal rivers have great and fast variations of hydrological flow along the year and can rapidly bring to the mediterranean sea the contamination occurring in the coastal area, especially where population density is high. The Kadicha river basin in Northern Lebanon is an illustrative example of multiple pressures encountered in the Mediterranean basin: it is a small coastal river affected by disorganized and rapid urbanization, a population growth and a chronic default of wastewater collection and treatment. In this context, various contaminants, witness of different anthropic activities were selected and analyzed within the Kadicha river basin.The main objective of this thesis was to determine the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Kadicha River watershed through the study of the contamination with persistent and emerging organic pollutants. Then, the potential environmental risk associated with their presence was assessed. Among emerging contaminants, several compounds having different physico-chemical properties were selected: personal care products (ultraviolet absorbents, musks), insecticides, biocides and surfactants (alkylphenols) and pharmaceutical products. Thus 41 hydrophobic compounds and 23 hydrophilic compounds were studied in sediments and water respectively. The environmental matrices were collected during two sampling campaigns corresponding to wet and dry seasons along sites impacted by urban, rural and mixture land uses (residential and agricultural zones).The results indicate : i) a detection of the totality of persistant organic pollutants and personal care products, insecticides, biocides and surfactants and 6 pharmaceuticals were detected, ii) a higher contamination (in terms of concentrations and diversity of molecules) in urban than in rural zones, iii) a selection of potential markers of urbanization (permethrin, galaxolide and UV-326) iv) an environmental risk for several compounds (ofloxacine (pharmaceutical), low molecular weight PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls) was identified and v) a higher potential risk associated with the presence of persistent organic pollutants.These results can be considered a knowledge base on anthropogenic pressures and levels of contamination with persistent and emerging organic pollutants in the Kadicha river watershed. The data acquired as well as the potential environmental risks associated with the presence of certain molecules in the Kadicha river watershed lead to propose these molecules as a part of future monitoring programs for anthropized rivers in the Mediterranean basin.
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Fatmé Merhabi. Contamination par les polluants organiques persistants et émergents une étude de cas : la rivière Kadicha. Sciences de la Terre. Université Montpellier; Université Libanaise. Faculté de Santé publique, section 3 (Tripoli, Liban), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019MONTG080⟩. ⟨tel-02573482⟩

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