, Configuring services to interact with Koala

, Configuring object redirection with Koala

, Redirecting object requests in nginx

, Moving project experiment setup

. .. Moving-project-results,

, Project distribution experiment setup

, Project distribution over time

.. .. Overhead,

, Overhead results for three requests

K. Aberer, A. Datta, and M. Hauswirth, Route maintenance overheads in DHT overlays, The 6th Workshop on Distributed Data and Structures, 2004.

K. Aberer, Gridvine: Building internet-scale semantic overlay networks". In: International semantic web conference, pp.107-121, 2004.

K. Aberer, P-Grid: a self-organizing structured P2P system, Sigmod Record, vol.32, pp.29-33, 2003.

C. M. Aderaldo, Benchmark Requirements for Microservices Architecture Research, 1st Intl. Workshop on Establishing the Community-Wide Infrastructure for Architecture-Based Software Engineering, 2017.

S. Agarwal, S. Yadav, and A. Kumar-yadav, An efficient architecture and algorithm for resource provisioning in fog computing, International Journal of Information Engineering and Electronic Business, vol.8, issue.1, p.48, 2016.

, Central Intelligence Agency. The world factbook 2016. Government Printing Office, 2016.

. Airbnb and . Smartstack, Service Discovery in the Cloud

M. Allani, B. Garbinato, and P. Pietzuch, Chams: Churn-aware overlay construction for media streaming, Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, vol.5, pp.412-427, 2012.

. Amazon, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

, Amazon. Amazon S3

. Amazon, . Aws-elastic, and . Beanstalk,

, Amazon. Global Infrastructure. url

A. Andrae and T. Edler, On global electricity usage of communication technology: trends to 2030, vol.6, pp.117-157, 2015.

M. Armbrust, A View of Cloud Computing, Commun. ACM, vol.53, pp.50-58, 2010.

O. Babaoglu, M. Marzolla, and M. Tamburini, Design and implementation of a P2P Cloud system, Proceedings of the 27th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pp.412-417, 2012.

O. Babaoglu, Design patterns from biology for distributed computing, ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS), vol.1, pp.26-66, 2006.

M. Bertier, Beyond the Clouds: How Should Next Generation Utility Computing Infrastructures Be Designed?, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01067888

B. Beyer, Site Reliability Engineering: How Google Runs Production Systems, 2016.

F. Luiz and . Bittencourt, Towards virtual machine migration in fog computing, 10th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing (3PGCIC), pp.1-8, 2015.

F. Bonomi, Fog computing: A platform for internet of things and analytics, Big data and internet of things: A roadmap for smart environments, pp.169-186, 2014.

F. Bonomi, Fog Computing and Its Role in the Internet of Things, Proceedings of the First Edition of the MCC Workshop on Mobile Cloud Computing. MCC '12, pp.13-16, 2012.

L. Braubach, K. Jander, and A. Pokahr, A novel distributed registry approach for efficient and resilient service discovery in megascale distributed systems?, In: Comput. Sci. Inf. Syst, vol.15, pp.1820-02141800030, 2018.

A. Eric and . Brewer, Towards robust distributed systems, PODC, vol.7, 2000.

A. Brocco, A. Malatras, and B. Hirsbrunner, Enabling efficient information discovery in a self-structured grid, Future Generation Computer Systems, vol.26, pp.838-846, 2010.

M. Báguena, Towards enabling hyper-responsive mobile apps through network edge assistance, 13th IEEE Annual Consumer Comm. Net. Conf. CCNC, 2016.

M. Calder, Analyzing the Performance of an Anycast CDN, Proceedings of the 2015 Internet Measurement Conference, pp.531-537, 2015.

S. Carmi, A model of Internet topology using k-shell decomposition, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.104, pp.11150-11154, 2007.

M. Castro, M. Costa, and A. Rowstron, Debunking some myths about structured and unstructured overlays, Proceedings of the 2nd conference on Symposium on Networked Systems Design & Implementation, vol.2, pp.85-98, 2005.

M. Castro, Topology-Aware Routing in Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks, Future Directions in Distributed Computing, Research and Position Papers, 2003.

A. Chandra, J. Weissman, and B. Heintz, Decentralized edge clouds, IEEE Internet Computing, vol.17, pp.70-73, 2013.

M. Chiang, Clarifying Fog Computing and Networking: 10 Questions and Answers, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol.55, 2017.

J. Cho, ACACIA: Context-aware Edge Computing for Continuous Interactive Applications over Mobile Networks, 12th Intl. on Conference on Emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies. CoNEXT, 2016.

K. Church, G. Albert, J. Greenberg, and . Hamilton, On Delivering Embarrassingly Distributed Cloud Services, pp.55-60, 2008.

S. Clinch, How close is close enough? Understanding the role of cloudlets in supporting display appropriation by mobile users, IEEE Intl. Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications. PerCom, 2012.

B. Cohen, Incentives build robustness in BitTorrent, Workshop on Economics of Peer-to-Peer systems, vol.6, pp.68-72, 2003.

O. Consortium, OpenFog reference architecture for fog computing, Architecture Working Group, 2017.

. Coreos, Etcd -A distributed, reliable key-value store for the most critical data of a distributed system

, Microsoft Corporation

P. Kevin, R. Coyne, and . Dye, The competitive dynamics of network-based businesses, Harvard business review, vol.76, pp.99-110, 1998.

P. Cudré-mauroux, K. Aberer, and M. Hauswirth, The Chatty Web Approach for Global Semantic Agreements, 2003.

F. Dabek, Vivaldi: A Decentralized Network Coordinate System, Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications. SIGCOMM '04, pp.15-26, 2004.

G. Decandia, Dynamo: amazon's highly available key-value store, ACM SIGOPS operating systems review, vol.41, pp.205-220, 2007.

K. Sanjay and . Dhurandher, Using bee algorithm for peer-to-peer file searching in mobile ad hoc networks, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol.34, pp.1498-1508, 2011.

E. W. Dijkstra, A Note on Two Problems in Connexion with Graphs, Numer. Math, vol.1, issue.1, pp.29-599, 1959.

. Docker--build, Ship, and Run Any App, Anywhere

M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, and A. Colorni, Ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents, IEEE Transactions on Systems, man, and cybernetics, vol.26, pp.29-41, 1996.

N. Dragoni, Microservices: yesterday, today, and tomorrow, Present and ulterior software engineering, pp.195-216, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01631455

. Dropbox, Cloud File Sharing and Storage for your Business

S. Mohammed and . Elbamby, Toward low-latency and ultra-reliable virtual reality, IEEE Network, vol.32, pp.78-84, 2018.

. Ethernity,

D. Fesehaye, Impact of Cloudlets on Interactive Mobile Cloud Applications, IEEE 16th Intl. Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference, 2012.

A. Forestiero, Self-chord: a bio-inspired P2P framework for self-organizing distributed systems, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON), vol.18, pp.1651-1664, 2010.

I. Foster and C. Kesselman, The Grid 2: Blueprint for a new computing infrastructure, 2003.

, Cloud Native Computing Foundation

J. Ayalvadi, A. Ganesh, L. Kermarrec, and . Massoulié, Chap. Scamp: Peer-to-Peer Lightweight Membership Service for Large-Scale Group Communication, 2001.

P. G. Lopez, Edge-centric computing: Vision and challenges, ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol.45, pp.37-42, 2015.

P. G. Lopez, Edge-centric Computing: Vision and Challenges, Commun. Rev, vol.45, 2015.

M. Garriga, Towards a taxonomy of microservices architectures, International Conference on Software Engineering and Formal Methods, pp.203-218, 2017.

R. Giordanelli, C. Mastroianni, and M. Meo, Bio-inspired P2P systems: The case of multidimensional overlay, ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (TAAS), vol.7, p.35, 2012.

S. Girdzijauskas, Fuzzynet: Ringless routing in a ring-like structured overlay, Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, vol.4, pp.1936-6450, 2011.

. Grid5000,

, High-Performance, Open-Source Universal RPC Framework

I. Gupta, Kelips: Building an Efficient and Stable P2P DHT through Increased Memory and Background Overhead, Second International Workshop on Peerto-Peer Systems (IPTPS'03), 2003.

R. Halalai, ZooFence: Principled Service Partitioning and Application to the ZooKeeper Coordination Service, 33rd IEEE Intl. Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems. SRDS, 2014.

M. Han, ZooKeeper at Twitter

. Haproxy--the-reliable, High Performance TCP/HTTP Load Balancer

J. A. Nicholas and . Harvey, SkipNet: A Scalable Overlay Network with Practical Locality Properties, Proceedings of the 4th Conference on USENIX Symposium on Internet Technologies and Systems, vol.4, pp.9-9, 2003.

R. Hasan, A survey of peer-to-peer storage techniques for distributed file systems, International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) -Volume II, vol.2, pp.205-213, 2005.

. Hashicorp,

. Inc and . Heroku, Heroku Platform

X. Hou, Vehicular fog computing: A viewpoint of vehicles as the infrastructures, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol.65, pp.3860-3873, 2016.

P. Hunt, ZooKeeper: Wait-free Coordination for Internet-scale Systems, Proceedings of the 2010 USENIX Conference on USENIX Annual Technical Conference. USENIXATC'10, pp.11-11, 2010.

, Overview of Edge Data Discovery

, Cisco Global Cloud Index and CV Cisco Visual Networking Index, 2016.

, Industrial Internet Consortium. url

, Global mobile trends, 2017.

M. Jelasity and O. Babaoglu, Third International Workshop on Engineering Self-Organising Systems (ESOA 2005)". In: ed. by, pp.1-15, 2006.

M. Jelasity, Gossip-based peer sampling, ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS), vol.25, p.8, 2007.

Y. and J. Wang, Chord2: A two-layer Chord for reducing maintenance overhead via heterogeneity, Computer Networks, vol.51, pp.712-731, 2007.

A. Kapsalis, A cooperative fog approach for effective workload balancing, IEEE Cloud Computing, vol.4, pp.36-45, 2017.

P. Kersch, Stochastic maintenance of overlays in structured P2P systems, Computer Communications, vol.31, pp.603-619, 2008.

J. Kleinberg, The Small-world Phenomenon: An Algorithmic Perspective, Proceedings of ACM STOC'00, pp.163-170, 2000.

F. Klemm, On routing in distributed hash tables, Seventh IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, pp.113-122, 2007.

G. Koloniari, Query Workload-aware Overlay Construction Using Histograms, Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. CIKM '05, pp.640-647, 2005.

Y. Kulbak and D. Bickson, The eMule protocol specification, 2005.

. James-f-kurose, Computer networking: A top-down approach featuring the internet, 3/E. Pearson Education India, 2005.

, Glider Labs. Registrator. url

A. Lakshman and P. Malik, Cassandra: structured storage system on a p2p network, Proceedings of the 28th ACM symposium on Principles of distributed computing, pp.5-5, 2009.

L. Lamport, Time, Clocks, and the Ordering of Events in a Distributed System, Commun. ACM, vol.21, 1978.

A. Lebre, J. Pastor, and D. Consortium, The DISCOVERY Initiative-Overcoming Major Limitations of Traditional Server-Centric Clouds by Operating Massively Distributed IaaS Facilities, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01203648

S. Legtchenko, RelaxDHT: A Churn-Resilient Replication Strategy for Peerto-Peer Distributed Hash Tables, ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, vol.7, pp.1-28, 2012.

J. Leitao, J. Pereira, and L. Rodrigues, HyParView: A Membership Protocol for Reliable Gossip-Based Broadcast, International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN'07), 2007.

K. Lev-ari, Modular Composition of Coordination Services, 2016 Usenix Annual Technical Conference. ATC, 2016.

C. Li, Edge-Oriented Computing Paradigms: A Survey on Architecture Design and System Management, Comput. Surv, vol.51, issue.2, 2018.

T. Li, ZHT: A Light-Weight Reliable Persistent Dynamic Scalable Zero-Hop Distributed Hash Table, 27th IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing, pp.775-787, 2013.

A. Van-der-linde, Legion: Enriching Internet Services with Peer-to-Peer Interactions, 26th Intl. Conf. on World Wide Web, 2017.

L. Google, . Google, and . Engine,

L. Google, Google Compute Engine

L. G. Google and . Suite,

T. Locher, S. Schmid, and R. Wattenhofer, eQuus: A provably robust and locality-aware peer-to-peer system, Sixth IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P'06), pp.3-11, 2006.

. Logicmonitor, Cloud Vision 2020: The Future of the Cloud Study

A. Malatras, State-of-the-art survey on P2P overlay networks in pervasive computing environments, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol.55, pp.1084-8045, 2015.

D. Malkhi, M. Naor, and D. Ratajczak, Viceroy: A scalable and dynamic emulation of the butterfly, Proceedings of the twenty-first annual symposium on Principles of distributed computing, pp.183-192, 2002.

G. Singh-manku, M. Bawa, and P. Raghavan, Symphony: Distributed Hashing in a Small World, Proceedings of the 4th USENIX Symposium on Internet Technologies and Systems, 2003.

Y. Mao, A Survey on Mobile Edge Computing: The Communication Perspective, IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, vol.19, pp.1553-877, 2017.

S. Marti, P. Ganesan, and H. Garcia-molina, DHT routing using social links, International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems, pp.100-111, 2004.

M. Masse, REST API Design Rulebook: Designing Consistent RESTful Web Service Interfaces, 2011.

L. Massoulié, A. Kermarrec, and A. Ganesh, Network awareness and failure resilience in self-organizing overlay networks, 22nd International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, pp.47-55, 2003.

M. Matos, CLON: Overlay Networks and Gossip Protocols for Cloud Environments, On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2009: Proceedings of Confederated International Conferences, CoopIS, DOA, IS, and ODBASE, 2009.

P. Maymounkov and D. Mazières, Kademlia: A Peer-to-Peer Information System Based on the XOR Metric, First International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS'02, pp.53-65, 2002.

C. Meiklejohn and P. Van-roy, Lasp: A Language for Distributed, Eventually Consistent Computations with CRDTs, 1st Workshop on Principles and Practice of Consistency for Distributed Data. PaPoC, 2015.

P. Mell and T. Grance, The NIST definition of cloud computing, 2011.

A. Mislove and P. Druschel, Providing administrative control and autonomy in structured peer-to-peer overlays, International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems, pp.162-172, 2004.

. Mongodb,

R. Luiz, C. L. Monnerat, and . Amorim, D1HT: a distributed one hop hash table, Proceedings 20th IEEE International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium, p.10, 2006.

F. Montesi, C. Guidi, and G. Zavattaro, Service-Oriented Programming with Jolie, Web Services Foundations, pp.81-107, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00909323

F. Montesi and J. Weber, Circuit breakers, discovery, and API gateways in microservices, 2016.

A. Montresor and M. Jelasity, PeerSim: A Scalable P2P Simulator, Proc. of the 9th Int. Conference on Peer-to-Peer (P2P'09), 2009.

A. Montresor, M. Jelasity, and O. Babaoglu, Chord on demand, Fifth IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P'05), pp.87-94, 2005.

C. Mouradian, A Comprehensive Survey on Fog Computing: State-of-the-art and Research Challenges, 2017.

, Neo4J Graph Platform

. Netflix,

. Netflix and . Ribbon,

S. Newman, Building microservices: designing fine-grained systems, 2015.

E. Ts, H. Ng, and . Zhang, Predicting Internet network distance with coordinatesbased approaches, Proceedings. Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, vol.1, pp.170-179, 2002.

A. Shadi and . Noghabi, Steel: Simplified Development and Deployment of Edge-Cloud Applications, 10th USENIX Workshop on Hot Topics in Cloud Computing. HotCloud, 2018.

D. Ongaro and J. Ousterhout, 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference (USENIX ATC 14). Philadelphia, PA: USENIX Association, pp.305-319, 2014.

, Open source software for creating private and public clouds

A. Papageorgiou, B. Cheng, and E. Kovacs, Real-time data reduction at the network edge of Internet-of-Things systems, 11th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM), 2015.

P. Mike, W. Papazoglou, . Van-den, and . Heuvel, Service oriented architectures: approaches, technologies and research issues, The VLDB journal, vol.16, pp.389-415, 2007.

R. C-greg-plaxton, A. W. Rajaraman, and . Richa, Accessing nearby copies of replicated objects in a distributed environment, Theory of computing systems, vol.32, pp.241-280, 1999.

F. Rahimian, Vitis: A gossip-based hybrid overlay for internet-scale publish/-subscribe enabling rendezvous routing in unstructured overlay networks, 2011 IEEE International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium, pp.746-757, 2011.

V. Ramasubramanian, . Emin-gün, and . Sirer, Beehive: O(1) Lookup Performance for Power-Law Query Distributions in Peer-to-Peer Overlays, 1st Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, pp.99-112, 2004.

M. Rambold, Towards autonomic service discovery a survey and comparison, 2009 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, pp.192-201, 2009.

S. Ratnasamy, A scalable content-addressable network, vol.31, 2001.

R. Server,

C. Ariyattu, F. Resmi, and . Taiani, Fluidify: Decentralized Overlay Deployment in a Multi-cloud World, Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems: 15th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, DAIS 2015, Held as Part of the 10th International Federated Conference on Distributed Computing Techniques, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01168137

S. Rhea, Handling churn in a DHT, Report No. UCB/CSD-03-1299, University of California, also Proc. USENIX, 2003.

M. Ripeanu, Peer-to-peer architecture case study: Gnutella network, Proceedings first international conference on peer-to-peer computing, pp.99-100, 2001.

A. I. Rowstron and P. Druschel, Pastry: Scalable, Decentralized Object Location, and Routing for Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Systems, Proceedings of IFIP/ACM Middleware'01, pp.329-350, 2001.

A. Sanhaji, Orange Labs Networks, France). Private communication, 2019.

M. Satyanarayanan, The case for vm-based cloudlets in mobile computing, IEEE pervasive Computing, vol.4, pp.14-23, 2009.

S. Serbu, P. Felber, and P. Kropf, HyPeer: Structured Overlay with Flexible-Choice Routing, Computer Networks, p.1, 2011.

, SkyDNS: DNS service discovery for etcd

M. Pradip-kumar-sharma, J. Chen, and . Park, A software defined fog node based distributed blockchain cloud architecture for IoT, IEEE Access, vol.6, pp.115-124, 2017.

W. Shi, Edge Computing: Vision and Challenges, vol.3, 2016.

G. Siganos, M. Sudhir-leslie-tauro, and . Faloutsos, Jellyfish: A conceptual model for the as internet topology, Journal of Communications and Networks, vol.8, issue.3, pp.339-350, 2006.

V. Stantchev, Smart items, fog and cloud computing as enablers of servitization in healthcare, Sensors & Transducers, vol.185, p.121, 2015.

I. Stoica, Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-peer Lookup Service for Internet Applications, Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM'01, pp.149-160, 2001.

R. Sumbaly, Serving large-scale batch computed data with project voldemort, Proceedings of the 10th USENIX conference on File and Storage Technologies. USENIX Association, pp.18-18, 2012.

S. Andrew, M. Tanenbaum, and . Van-steen, Distributed systems: principles and paradigms, 2007.

B. Tang, A hierarchical distributed fog computing architecture for big data analysis in smart cities, Proceedings of the ASE BigData & SocialInformatics, p.28, 2015.

J. Thalheim, Sieve: Actionable Insights from Monitored Metrics in Distributed Systems, 18th ACM/IFIP/USENIX Middleware Conference, 2017.

, The Twelve-Factor App

G. Urdaneta, G. Pierre, and M. Van-steen, A Survey of DHT Security Techniques, ACM Comput. Surv, vol.43, issue.2, 2011.

K. Velasquez, Fog orchestration for the Internet of Everything: state-of-theart and research challenges, Journal of Internet Services and Applications, vol.9, pp.1869-0238, 2018.

M. Villari, Osmotic Computing: A New Paradigm for Edge/Cloud Integration, 2016.

S. Voulgaris, D. Gavidia, and M. Van-steen, Cyclon: Inexpensive membership management for unstructured p2p overlays, Journal of Network and systems Management, vol.13, pp.197-217, 2005.

S. Wang, A Survey on Mobile Edge Networks: Convergence of Computing, Caching and Communications, IEEE Access, vol.5, 2017.

B. M. Waxman, Routing of multipoint connections, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol.6, 1988.

B. Wellman and C. Haythornthwaite, The Internet in everyday life, 2008.

W. Wu, LDHT: Locality-aware Distributed Hash Tables, 2008 International Conference on Information Networking, pp.1-5, 2008.

Z. Xu, M. Mahalingam, and M. Karlsson, Turning Heterogeneity into an Advantage in Overlay Routing, Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2003

S. Yi, C. Li, and Q. Li, A Survey of Fog Computing: Concepts, Applications and Issues, Proceedings of the 2015 Workshop on Mobile Big Data. Mobidata '15, pp.37-42, 2015.

J. Yli-huumo, Where is current research on blockchain technology?-a systematic review, PloS one, vol.11, p.163477, 2016.

A. Yousefpour, All one needs to know about fog computing and related edge computing paradigms: A complete survey, Journal of Systems Architecture, 2019.

M. Zhanikeev, A cloud visitation platform to facilitate cloud federation and fog computing, Computer 48, vol.5, pp.80-83, 2015.

Y. Ben and . Zhao, Brocade: Landmark routing on overlay networks, International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems, pp.34-44, 2002.

Y. Ben and . Zhao, Tapestry: A resilient global-scale overlay for service deployment, IEEE Journal on selected areas in communications, vol.22, pp.41-53, 2004.

R. Hao-zhuang, K. Rahman, and . Aberer, Decentralizing the cloud: How can small data centers cooperate?, In: 14-th IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, pp.1-10, 2014.

, entre l'application et le mécanisme de découverte qui permet à ce dernier d'identifier les objets dans une requête et de rediriger la requête vers le fragment contenant cet objet

, En plus de maintenir une correspondance entre les objets et les fragments, notre système effectue un suivi de l'emplacements des utilisateurs qui demandent un objet particulier. Si leurs emplacements sont éloignés de l'objet, notre système migre l'objet vers un autre emplacement, celui étant en moyenne plus proche des utilisateurs de cet objet

, ? Nous intégrons notre mécanisme de découverte à ShareLatex dans un déploiement fog entièrement automatisé et montrons comment le système réagit à des cas d'utilisation réels

?. Enfin, nous revenons sur les leçons apprises non seulement pour le déploiement d'applications existantes dans le Fog, mais également pour la création native des futures applications destinées au Fog