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S'installer et vivre dans les hautes vallées alpines : des trajectoires de vie entre attractivité et capacité d'adaptation des territoires

Abstract : The purpose of this thesis is to understand the attractiveness of mountainous areas which have certain forms of isolation, even marginality that ot represents and which attract inhabitants. The analysis of residential trajectories and migrations towards in the high French Alpine valleys makes possible to approch the life choices. Between collective aspirations and individual representations, it interrogates the importance of public policies in favor of the reception and the support of populations. The territorial development and the recomposition of these spaces under the influence of tourism is also included in the reflection.To question the fact of settling in an isolated space could constitute a paradox but it is the center of the research which leans on four hypotheses. The first one considers migrations and especially the amenity migrations which seem to extend on this context still not much studied. To validate or not this hypothesis, the idea leans on the trajectories, the choices of inhabitants and on the specificities that make the valleys attractive, or finally repulsive, for someone. The second hypothesis is based on the importance of quality’s life as driving elements of the move. Current lifestyles and recent social developments (mobility, place of employment, family structures and individualism, etc.) allow us to bring new elements of reflection, such as the sensitive relationship to space. The third hypothesis is about the existence of a gradient of attractiveness from the high valleys, influenced by a conjunction of multiple political and economic dynamics that would favor durability. Integrating the demographic and economic difficulties, the selected territories are not necessarily compared. They are understood with their specificities, successes and fragilities. Finally, the fourth hypothesis take in consideration the territories influenced by the tourist economy. The high alpine valleys were selected because they are at the margins of major tourist flows. However, the evolution of the economy, on which they are more and more relied, has had to be integrated into the reflection. New forms of residentialness tend to develop, which brings to confront the challenges of tourism and year’s life in mountain valleys.This thesis is based on a mainly empirical work. Eight study areas were selected according to specific criteria such as the access time to the services. Five valleys were surveyed by a wide panel of operators, including the inhabitants : Haut-Giffre (Haute-Savoie), Beaufortain, Haute-Maurienne (Savoie), Queyras (Hautes-Alpes) et Haute-Ubaye (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence). Three other valleys have completed the reflection on public policies : Valbonnais (Isère), Valgaudemar (Hautes-Alpes) and Haute-Tinée (Alpes-Maritimes).The results of this thesis give all the elements to undestand the residential dynamics of the high Alpine valleys and the impact it has. This research considers the mountain space as a factor influenced the move process, both in terms of motivations and constraints. Nevertheless, the marginality and the attractiveness of these spaces are distinguished according to a series of elements that can differ widely according to the valleys (access to public services, health, shops, accomodations, employment market, mobility, local life and integration, etc.). In this way, the issues of maintening the population for these territories also depends on the adaptability of the operators (inhabitants, elected members, associations) to galvanize these spaces of life
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Anne Barrioz. S'installer et vivre dans les hautes vallées alpines : des trajectoires de vie entre attractivité et capacité d'adaptation des territoires. Géographie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAA010⟩. ⟨tel-02563101⟩

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