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EVALUATION DE L'ACTIVITE INHIBITRICE DES FRUITS DE BAUHINIA THONNINGII (FABACEAE) SUR DEUX GLYCOSIDASES ET ESSAI DE TRAITEMENT DU DIABETE CHEZ LE RAT WISTAR

Abstract : Bauhinia thonningii (Schum.) Milne-Redh (Caesalpiniaceae) is recognized in Africa and especially in West Africa for its many therapeutic virtues. For decades, this plant has been the subject of several scientific studies in order to highlight its various proven therapeutic properties in traditional medicine and to understand its mechanism of action. It is within this framework that this research work which is a contribution to the study of the plant Bauhinia thonningii. The experimental study focused on the total aqueous extract of fruit from Bauhinia thonningii (EABt) obtained by the traditional method (decoction). After extraction (yield 9.46%) and phytochemical analyses, the oral potential diabetic effect in Wistar rats and the assessment of the activity of EABt on α-amylase and α-glycosidase in vitro were investigated. Phytochemical analysis of EABt based on coloring and/or precipitation reactions revealed a heterogeneity of chemical groups (saponosides, polyphenols, flavonoids, cathechic tannins and reducing compounds). Prior to the investigation of the potential antidiabetic effect in vivo, an analysis of acute oral toxicity in rats was undertaken. The resulting LD50 was greater than 5000 mg/kg bw, no mortality and no clinical signs of toxicity were observed in all animals. Also the biochemical parameters related to the liver, kidney and heart as well as their different relative weights showed no significant differences from those of normal rats. Also the organs taken (heart, liver and kidney) that may be adversely affected by toxicity did not exhibit any abnormalities during the 14 days of observation. Potential antidiabetic effect in vivo was investigated while determining the experimental effective dose(s). The results of this study showed that the extract causes a nonsignificant hypoglycemic effect (p = 0.073) and a significant anti-hypoglycemic effect (p = 0.041) in normal rats after a single dose administration of 1 mL/100 g bw. These two effects are dose-dependent because the increasing concentrations of EABt (50; 100 and 150 mg/mL) decrease basic blood sugar levels after 2 hours of -2. 67 respectively; -12. 65 and -19. 76 %. Glucose tolerance test, at the same respective concentrations, showed an anti-hyperglycemic effect of 12.58; -12.65 and -26.62 % in pretreatment after 2 h 30 min. These effects are different from the effects caused by the reference product glyburide 0.25 mg/ml which induces a reduction in blood sugar of -36.65 % (hypoglycemia) and -60.73% (anti-hyperglycemia). The extract at these different concentrations showed an ability to correct blood sugar levels and similarly doses 100 and 150 mg/mL bw appear to be effective experimental doses. Induction of diabetes also revealed that EABt, at the same previous levels, showed no weight disturbance, glucose, liver (ASAT and ALAT), kidney (urea and creatinine) profiles, lipid (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and hematological (erythrocytes and leukocytes) in experimental rats rendered diabetic and treated for 21 days. The in vitro study of the assessment of the activity of EABt on α-amylase and α-glycosidase on the ELISA plate reader showed its inhibitory effect on both enzymes. The IC50s of α-amylase and α-glycosidase were 1.159 mg/mL and 3.82 E-02 mg/mL, respectively, while those of Acarbose were 4.57 E+06 mg/mL and 3.13 E-01 mg/mL.
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Kouassi Denis Bédou. EVALUATION DE L'ACTIVITE INHIBITRICE DES FRUITS DE BAUHINIA THONNINGII (FABACEAE) SUR DEUX GLYCOSIDASES ET ESSAI DE TRAITEMENT DU DIABETE CHEZ LE RAT WISTAR. Pharmacologie. Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire), 2019. Français. ⟨tel-02537203⟩

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