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Apport de la modélisation semi-mécanistique dans l'étude pharmacocinétique/pharmacodynamique des antibiotiques seuls et en combinaison dans la lutte contre les bactéries résistantes

Abstract : Fighting against multidrug-resistant bacteria is a major priority set by World Health Organisation, since it is forecasted that multi-drug-resistant bacteria will be responsible for more deaths than cancer by 2050. In the current context, with only a few new antibiotic drugs active against multidrug-resistant bacteria approved every year, it is of importance to optimize the use of already available antibiotics. It is with this goal in mind, that semi-mechanistic models used to analyse results from PK/PD studies of antibiotics, can be developed. These mathematical tools enable quantification of concentration-effect relationships of drugs, used alone or in combination, in order to optimize their efficacy, prevent bacterial resistance, thus lengthening the period of usability of antibiotics. In this work, after a presentation of the methods used to study PK/PD of antibiotics alone and in combination, results from two projects are presented:1.A study of cefoxitin PK/PD against a Mycobacterium abscessus strain. Firstly, it was shown that after nebulisation of cefoxitin, pulmonary concentrations were 1000-fold higher than after intravenous administration, making cefoxitin a good candidate for nebulisation. In a second part, a semi-mechanistic PK/PD model was developed from in vitro data, enabling identification of concentration-effect relationships for two bacterial sub-populations while taking into account degradation of cefoxitin. 2.A study of the PK/PD of polymyxin B and minocycline association against a polymyxin B resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain. This in vitro study incorporates data from time-kill experiments with quantification of a bacterial sub-population resistant to polymyxin B, enriched by complementary experiments providing information on the characteristics of this resistant sub-population. This data was analysed by semi-mechanistic PK/PD modelling, which made possible quantification of the strength of interaction between the two drugs and to form hypotheses about the mechanisms of the observed interaction.
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Vincent Aranzana-Climent. Apport de la modélisation semi-mécanistique dans l'étude pharmacocinétique/pharmacodynamique des antibiotiques seuls et en combinaison dans la lutte contre les bactéries résistantes. Maladies infectieuses. Université de Poitiers, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019POIT1802⟩. ⟨tel-02535136⟩

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