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Stratégies d'oxygénation non invasives dans l'insuffisance respiratoire aiguë hypoxémique des patients immunodéprimés

Abstract : Acute respiratory failure is the leading cause of intensive care unit admission in immunocompromised patients. Despite therapeutic progresses, their mortality rate remains intolerably high when invasive mechanical ventilation is needed. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is currently recommended as first-line treatment in this setting given the mortality reduction reported in old randomized trials. Recently, benefits of NIV have been challenged by large sample sized trials. However, NIV settings may have been suboptimal in these studies and consequently dampened its efficacy. Moreover, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFOT), a more recent oxygenation technique, was associated with promising results in various clinical settings. This project aims at conducting a randomized multicenter controlled trial comparing optimized NIV with HFOT in critically ill immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure. First, we validated the research hypothesis, the primary outcome, the sample size calculation and the recruitment rate of the project by means of a pilot retrospective study. Then, the NIV protocol was built based on a systematic review of literature comparing the efficacy of previously published NIV protocols. Afterwards, we identified factors independently associated with NIV failure in hypoxemic patients to identify respiratory parameters to monitor during NIV. Next, we determined mechanisms leading to physiological effects of HFOT in a bench study and a study on healthy volunteers. Last, we chose the most reliable method to estimate inspired oxygen fraction under oxygen mask in a study comparing the different existing methods in order to refine inclusion criteria of the project. All in all, these five above-mentioned preliminary studies enabled to conduct a prospective multicenter randomized trial in 30 centers in France and in Italy aiming at comparing effects of HFOT alone at 60 L/min to its association with optimized NIV (applied at least 12 hours a day with a positive end-expiratory pressure of at least 8 cmH2O and an expired tidal volume lower than 8 ml/kg of predicted body weight) on mortality at day 28 in 300 immunocompromised patients admitted to the ICU for acute respiratory failure.
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 2, 2020 - 1:40:11 PM
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Rémi Coudroy. Stratégies d'oxygénation non invasives dans l'insuffisance respiratoire aiguë hypoxémique des patients immunodéprimés. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Poitiers, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019POIT1403⟩. ⟨tel-02529603⟩

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