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La réforme des administrations centrales à Taïwan et en France : agences et autorités indépendantes

Abstract : The fast development of modern society and communication, as well as the emergence of globalization, bring on the diversification and complexity of public affairs. New missions require that administrations or civil servants become flexible and open to meet the needs of the people, but, because of the authentic framework, the State and hierarchical administrations are not able to easily change the rigid structure and procedure in the administration. On the one hand, the State has provided public services for the people through continuous intervention in the free market. In the original, public services have had the aim of promoting the general interest, some politicians and civil servants have illegally satisfied the private interest through their powers; on the other hand, the efficiency of public services is worse than that of private companies. Administration is used to ignoring the importance of cost-benefit analysis. Even if an administration carries out its task in the name of the general interest, citizens do not allow it to waste state resources.The design of the public organization’s institution outside the hierarchical administration can refer to the theory of new public governance. In order to ensure the boundary between legislative power and executive power, the separation of powers claims to take into consideration legitimacy and reasonableness. Finally, the accountability mechanism is embodied in the demand for democracy and political responsibility. Taking account of the potential corruptions and the decrease the conflict of interest, the emergence of the independent administrative organization arrived for maintaining the fair competition and avoiding the corruption in the United States at the end of the 19th century. France established the first independent administrative authority, the Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés (CNIL) in 1978. Up to now, there are 26 independent administrative authorities. The legislative power extends the functions of those who are likely to regulate competition, promote relations between administrations and citizens, and protect fundamental rights. Compared with the independent administrative authority in France, the Taiwanese legislation has been cautious about creating the independent administrative organization. In his view, it evades the control of the senior administration and easily causes the flight within the government. The legislative Yuan inaugurated the first independent administrative commission, the Fair Competition Commission (FCC) in 1992. (...)
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Ho-Chun Chi. La réforme des administrations centrales à Taïwan et en France : agences et autorités indépendantes. Droit. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PA01D074⟩. ⟨tel-02528982⟩

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