B. Fadhl, L. C. Wrobel, and H. Jouhara, Numerical modelling of the temperature distribution in a two-phase closed thermosyphon, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.60, issue.1-2, pp.122-131, 2013.

A. Zachár, I. Farkas, and F. Szlivka, Numerical analyses of the impact of plates for thermal stratification inside a storage tank with upper and lower inlet flows, Solar Energy, vol.74, issue.4, pp.287-302, 2003.

F. Mauthner, W. Weiss, M. Spork, and . Dur, Solar heat worldwide: Markets and contribution to the energy supply, IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme, 2013.

Z. Yu and D. Gibbs, Encircling cities from rural areas? barriers to the diffusion of solar water heaters in china's urban market, Energy Policy, vol.115, pp.366-373, 2018.

S. Bahria, M. Amirat, A. Hamidat, M. E. Ganaoui, and M. E. Slimani, Parametric study of solar heating and cooling systems in different climates of algeria -a comparison between conventional and high-energyperformance buildings, Energy, vol.113, pp.521-535, 2016.

S. Ed-dîn-fertahi, T. Bouhal, Y. Agrouaz, T. Kousksou, T. E. Rhafiki et al., Performance optimization of a two-phase closed thermosyphon through cfd numerical simulations, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.128, pp.551-563, 2018.

Y. E. Mghouchi, T. Ajzoul, and A. E. Bouardi, Prediction of daily solar radiation intensity by day of the year in twenty-four cities of morocco, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.53, pp.823-831, 2016.

R. Tang and Y. Yang, Nocturnal reverse flow in water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.80, pp.173-177, 2014.

K. Omakl?, U. Ak?r, M. Kaya, and K. Bakirci, The relation of collector and storage tank size in solar heating systems, 10th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies, vol.63, pp.112-117, 2011.

A. V. Novo, J. R. Bayon, D. Castro-fresno, and J. Rodriguez-hernandez, Review of seasonal heat storage in large basins: Water tanks and gravel-water pits, Applied Energy, vol.87, issue.2, pp.390-397, 2010.

Y. Li, G. Huang, T. Xu, X. Liu, and H. Wu, Optimal design of pcm thermal storage tank and its application for winter available open-air swimming pool, Applied Energy, vol.209, pp.224-235, 2018.

P. Paradis, D. R. Rousse, L. Lamarche, H. Nesreddine, and M. Talbot, One-dimensional model of a stratified thermal storage tank with supercritical coiled heat exchanger, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.134, pp.379-395, 2018.

M. Arslan and A. A. Igci, Thermal performance of a vertical solar hot water storage tank with a mantle heat exchanger depending on the discharging operation parameters, Solar Energy, vol.116, pp.184-204, 2015.

M. R. Assari, H. B. Tabrizi, and M. Savadkohy, Numerical and experimental study of inlet-outlet locations effect in horizontal storage tank of solar water heater, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol.25, pp.181-190, 2018.

M. I. Hussain and G. H. Lee, Thermal performance evaluation of a conical solar water heater integrated with a thermal storage system, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.87, pp.267-273, 2014.

Z. Wang, H. Zhang, B. Dou, H. Huang, and G. Zhang, The thermal stratification characteristics affected by a novel equalizer in a dynamic hot water storage tank, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.126, pp.1006-1016, 2017.

A. L. Nash, A. Badithela, and N. Jain, Dynamic modeling of a sensible thermal energy storage tank with an immersed coil heat exchanger under three operation modes, Applied Energy, vol.195, pp.877-889, 2017.

G. Murali and K. Mayilsamy, Effect of latent thermal energy storage and inlet locations on enhancement of stratification in a solar water heater under discharging mode, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.106, pp.354-360, 2016.

K. Osman, S. M. Khaireed, M. K. Ariffin, and M. Y. Senawi, Dynamic modeling of stratification for chilled water storage tank, special Issue 3rd International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications, vol.49, pp.3270-3273, 2008.

J. Dragsted, S. Furbo, M. Dannemand, and F. Bava, Thermal stratification built up in hot water tank with different inlet stratifiers, Solar Energy, vol.147, pp.414-425, 2017.

N. Brown and F. Lai, Enhanced thermal stratification in a liquid storage tank with a porous manifold, Solar Energy, vol.85, issue.7, pp.1409-1417, 2011.

E. Palacios, D. Admiraal, J. Marcos, and M. Izquierdo, Experimental analysis of solar thermal storage in a water tank with open side inlets, special issue on Thermal Energy Management in the Process Industries, vol.89, pp.401-412, 2012.

S. Göppert, R. Lohse, T. Urbaneck, U. Schirmer, B. Platzer et al., New computation method for stratification pipes of solar storage tanks, Solar Energy, vol.83, issue.9, pp.1578-1587, 2009.

A. López-navarro, J. Biosca-taronger, J. Corberán, C. Peñalosa, A. Lázaro et al., Performance characterization of a pcm storage tank, Applied Energy, vol.119, pp.151-162, 2014.

Y. Allouche, S. Varga, C. Bouden, and A. C. Oliveira, Validation of a cfd model for the simulation of heat transfer in a tubes-in-tank pcm storage unit, Renewable Energy, vol.89, pp.371-379, 2016.

Z. Meng and P. Zhang, Experimental and numerical investigation of a tube-in-tank latent thermal energy storage unit using composite pcm, Applied Energy, vol.190, pp.524-539, 2017.

M. Y. Haller, C. A. Cruickshank, W. Streicher, S. J. Harrison, E. Andersen et al., Methods to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes -review and theoretical comparison, Solar Energy, vol.83, issue.10, pp.1847-1860, 2009.

S. Ievers and W. Lin, Numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow dynamics in a hot water storage tank, Applied Energy, vol.86, issue.12, pp.2604-2614, 2009.

W. Yaïci, M. Ghorab, E. Entchev, and S. Hayden, Three-dimensional unsteady cfd simulations of a thermal storage tank performance for optimum design, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.60, issue.1, pp.152-163, 2013.

D. Erdemir and N. Altuntop, Improved thermal stratification with obstacles placed inside the vertical mantled hot water tanks, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.100, pp.20-29, 2016.

E. García-marí, M. Gasque, R. P. Gutiérrez-colomer, F. Ibáñez, and P. González-altozano, A new inlet device that enhances thermal stratification during charging in a hot water storage tank, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.61, issue.2, pp.663-669, 2013.

N. Altuntop, M. Arslan, V. Ozceyhan, and M. Kanoglu, Effect of obstacles on thermal stratification in hot water storage tanks, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.25, issue.14, pp.2285-2298, 2005.

A. Zachar, I. Farkas, and F. Szlivka, Numerical analyses of the impact of plates for thermal stratification inside a storage tank with upper and lower inlet flows, Solar Energy, vol.74, issue.4, pp.287-302, 2003.

T. Bouhal, S. Fertahi, Y. Agrouaz, T. E. Rhafiki, T. Kousksou et al., Numerical modeling and optimization of thermal stratification in solar hot water storage tanks for domestic applications: Cfd study, Solar Energy, vol.157, pp.441-455, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02153535

M. Gómez, J. Collazo, J. Porteiro, and J. Míguez, Numerical study of the thermal behaviour of a water heater tank with a corrugated coil, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.122, pp.574-586, 2018.

A. Li, F. Cao, W. Zhang, B. Shi, and H. Li, Effects of different thermal storage tank structures on temperature stratification and thermal efficiency during charging, Solar Energy, vol.173, pp.882-892, 2018.

B. Kur?un, Thermal stratification enhancement in cylindrical and rectangular hot water tanks with truncated cone and pyramid shaped insulation geometry, Solar Energy, vol.169, pp.512-525, 2018.

G. S. Kumar, D. Nagarajan, L. Chidambaram, V. Kumaresan, Y. Ding et al., Role of pcm addition on stratification behaviour in a thermal storage tank -an experimental study, Energy, vol.115, pp.1168-1178, 2016.

Z. Wang, H. Zhang, B. Dou, H. Huang, W. Wu et al., Experimental and numerical research of thermal stratification with a novel inlet in a dynamic hot water storage tank, Renewable Energy, vol.111, pp.353-371, 2017.

A. Alizadehdakhel, M. Rahimi, and A. A. Alsairafi, {CFD} modeling of flow and heat transfer in a thermosyphon, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.37, issue.3, pp.312-318, 2010.

S. Ed-dîn-fertahi, T. Bouhal, A. Arid, T. Kousksou, A. Jamil et al., Thermomechanical strength analysis for energy storage improvement of horizontal storage tanks integrating evacuated tube collectors, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.42, issue.49, pp.29370-29383, 2017.

. Energypoles+,

. Transol,

, Ministère de l'energie, des mines, de l'eau et de l'environnement, stratégie energétique nationale, horizon 2030

H. C. Au-plan, Croissanceéconomique et développement humain:éléments pour une planification stratégique, 2007.

, Flir systems, thermal imaging, night vision and infrared camera

J. Bracamonte, J. Parada, J. Dimas, and M. Baritto, Effect of the collector tilt angle on thermal efficiency and stratification of passive water in glass evacuated tube solar water heater, Applied Energy, vol.155, pp.648-659, 2015.

G. Bourke and P. Bansal, New test method for gas boosters with domestic solar water heaters, Solar Energy, vol.86, issue.1, pp.78-86, 2012.

T. Bouhal, Y. Agrouaz, A. Allouhi, T. Kousksou, A. Jamil et al., Impact of load profile and collector technology on the fractional savings of solar domestic water heaters under various climatic conditions, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.42, issue.18, pp.13245-13258, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02153534

Y. Agrouaz, T. Bouhal, A. Allouhi, T. Kousksou, A. Jamil et al., Energy and parametric analysis of solar absorption cooling systems in various moroccan climates, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, vol.9, pp.28-39, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02153456

T. Bouhal, Y. Agrouaz, T. Kousksou, A. Allouhi, T. E. Rhafiki et al., Technical feasibility of a sustainable concentrated solar power in morocco through an energy analysis, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.81, pp.1087-1095, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02153688

B. Brand, Transmission topologies for the integration of renewable power into the electricity systems of north africa, Energy Policy, vol.60, pp.155-166, 2013.

C. Kost, M. Engelken, and T. Schlegl, Value generation of future csp projects in north africa, Energy Policy, vol.46, pp.88-99, 2012.

T. Bouhal, S. Ed-dîn-fertahi, Y. Agrouaz, T. E. Rhafiki, Y. Zeraouli et al., Towards an energy efficiency optimization of solar horizontal storage tanks and circulation pipes integrating evacuated tube collectors through cfd parametric studies, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02153684

R. Chedid and F. Chaaban, Renewable-energy developments in arab countries: a regional perspective, vol.74, pp.211-220, 2003.

K. Damerau, K. Williges, A. G. Patt, and P. Gauché, Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for north africa, special Section: Renewable energy policy and development, vol.39, pp.4391-4398, 2011.

S. Griffiths, A review and assessment of energy policy in the middle east and north africa region, Energy Policy, vol.102, pp.249-269, 2017.

A. Eberhard, K. Gratwick, E. Morella, and P. Antmann, Independent power projects in sub-saharan africa: Investment trends and policy lessons, Energy Policy, vol.108, pp.390-424, 2017.

F. Trieb, H. Müller-steinhagen, and J. Kern, Financing concentrating solar power in the middle east and north africa-subsidy or investment?, Energy Policy, vol.39, issue.1, pp.307-317, 2011.

A. Nouri, M. A. Babram, E. Elwarraki, and M. Enzili, Moroccan wind farm potential feasibility. case study, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.122, pp.39-51, 2016.

N. Belakhdar, M. Kharbach, and M. , The renewable energy plan in morocco, a divisia index approach, Energy Strategy Reviews, vol.4, pp.11-15, 2014.

A. Alhamwi, D. Kleinhans, S. Weitemeyer, and T. Vogt, Moroccan national energy strategy reviewed from a meteorological perspective, Energy Strategy Reviews, vol.6, pp.39-47, 2015.

A. Bennouna and C. E. Hebil, Energy needs for morocco 2030, as obtained from gdp-energy and gdp-energy intensity correlations, Energy Policy, vol.88, pp.45-55, 2016.

A. Omri, Co2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth nexus in mena countries: Evidence from simultaneous equations models, Energy Economics, vol.40, pp.657-664, 2013.

S. Ed-dîn-fertahi, T. Bouhal, F. Gargab, A. Jamil, T. Kousksou et al., Design and thermal performance optimization of a forced collective solar hot water production system in morocco for energy saving in residential buildings, Solar Energy, vol.160, pp.260-274, 2018.

H. Dagdougui, A. Ouammi, M. Robba, and R. Sacile, Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar water heater flat plate collector: Application to tétouan (morocco), Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.15, issue.1, pp.630-638, 2011.

K. Chang, W. Lin, T. Lee, and K. Chung, Local market of solar water heaters in taiwan: Review and perspectives, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.13, issue.9, pp.2605-2612, 2009.

R. Sellami, N. K. Merzouk, M. Amirat, R. Chekrouni, N. Ouhib et al., Market potential and development prospects of the solar water heater field in algeria, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.65, pp.617-625, 2016.

I. Ruble and P. E. Khoury, Lebanon's market for domestic solar water heaters: Achievements and barriers, Energy for Sustainable Development, vol.17, issue.1, pp.54-61, 2013.

C. Curry, J. A. Cherni, and M. Mapako, The potential and reality of the solar water heater programme in south african townships: Lessons from the city of tshwane, Energy Policy, vol.106, pp.75-84, 2017.

I. Allali, Promasol: Democratizing access to solar water-heaters, Growing Inclusive Markets, 2011.

B. Allali, Promasol : democratizingaccess to solar water-heaters : Gim initiative case study, 2011.

, Haut-commissariat au plan (hcp), prospectives maroc 2030. quelle démographie?, 2015.

, Ministère de l'economie et des finances, tableau de bord sectoriel

, Exon mobil, perspectivesÉnergétiquesà l'horizon 2040, 2015.

, Ministère de l'energie, des mines, de l'eau et de l'environnement, la nouvelle stratégie energétique nationale, bilan d'etape

, Ministère de l'economie et des finances, direction des etudes et des prévisions financières quel positionnement régional pour le maroc en matière de compétitivitéénergétique ?, 2015.

, Ministère de l'economie et des finances, projet de loi de finances pour l'année budgétaire 2015, rapport sur la compensation, 2015.

A. Ouammi, D. Zejli, H. Dagdougui, and R. Benchrifa, Artificial neural network analysis of moroccan solar potential, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.16, issue.7, pp.4876-4889, 2012.

-. Haut and . Au-plan, hcp), prospectives maroc 2030. prospectiveénergétique du maroc: Enjeux et défis, 2011.

A. Laraki, Énergies solaire et nergies solaire au royaume du maroc

, Ome report for gswh-unep-undp, solar thermal in the mediterranean region: Market assessment report, september 2012

, Amee -agence marocaine pour l'efficacité energétique

A. Tsikalakis, T. Tomtsi, N. Hatziargyriou, A. Poullikkas, C. Malamatenios et al., Review of best practices of solar electricity resources applications in selected middle east and north africa (mena) countries, Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, vol.15, issue.6, pp.2838-2849, 2011.

, Sergun solar water heating systems co

, Batitherm rabat casablanca maroc -Énergie renouvelable, chauffe-eau solaires

&. Le-solaire-une-energie-propre, 89] solar water heaters in morocco

, Chauffage solaire energie solaire groupesélectrogènes (vente, location

T. Kousksou, A. Allouhi, M. Belattar, A. Jamil, T. E. Rhafiki et al., Renewable energy potential and national policy directions for sustainable development in morocco, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.47, pp.46-57, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02153675

A. Bajoub, A. Sánchez-ortiz, E. A. Ajal, N. Ouazzani, A. Fernández-gutiérrez et al., First comprehensive characterization of volatile profile of north moroccan olive oils: A geographic discriminant approach, Food Research International, vol.76, pp.410-417, 2015.

O. Nematollahi and K. C. Kim, A feasibility study of solar energy in south korea, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.77, pp.566-579, 2017.

H. Nfaoui and A. Sayigh, Study of direct solar radiation in ouarzazate (morocco), Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Research Advances ISSN, p.36, 2012.

Y. Taheri, B. M. Ziapour, and K. Alimardani, Study of an efficient compact solar water heater, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.70, pp.187-193, 2013.

M. Rodríguez-hidalgo, P. Rodríguez-aumente, A. Lecuona, M. Legrand, and R. Ventas, Domestic hot water consumption vs. solar thermal energy storage: The optimum size of the storage tank, energy Solutions for a Sustainable World -Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Applied Energy, vol.97, pp.897-906, 2011.

J. Fan and S. Furbo, Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank, Solar Energy, vol.86, issue.11, pp.3460-3469, 2012.

T. Bouhal, S. Ed-dîn-fertahi, Y. Agrouaz, T. E. Rhafiki, Y. Zeraouli et al., Towards an energy efficiency optimization of solar horizontal storage tanks and circulation pipes integrating evacuated tube collectors through cfd parametric studies, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol.26, pp.93-104, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02153684

B. Fadhl, L. C. Wrobel, and H. Jouhara, Cfd modelling of a two-phase closed thermosyphon charged with r134a and r404a, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.78, pp.482-490, 2015.

J. A. Alfaro-ayala, O. A. López-núñez, F. Gómez-castro, J. Ramírez-minguela, A. Uribe-ramírez et al., Optimization of a solar collector with evacuated tubes using the simulated annealing and computational fluid dynamics, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.166, pp.343-355, 2018.

A. Hafez, M. Kassem, and O. Huzayyin, Smart adaptive model for dynamic simulation of horizontal thermally stratified storage tanks, Energy, vol.142, pp.782-792, 2018.

J. Cadafalch, D. Carbonell, R. Consul, and R. Ruiz, Modelling of storage tanks with immersed heat exchangers, Solar Energy, vol.112, pp.154-162, 2015.

K. Bataineh and A. Gharaibeh, Optimal design for sensible thermal energy storage tank using natural solid materials for a parabolic trough power plant, Solar Energy, vol.171, pp.519-525, 2018.

A. Rout, S. S. Sahoo, and S. Thomas, Risk modeling of domestic solar water heater using monte carlo simulation for east-coastal region of india, Energy, vol.145, pp.548-556, 2018.

T. Bouhal, S. Ed-dîn-fertahi, Y. Agrouaz, T. E. Rhafiki, T. Kousksou et al., Technical assessment, economic viability and investment risk analysis of solar heating/cooling systems in residential buildings in morocco, Solar Energy, vol.170, pp.1043-1062, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02146081

M. Swiatek, G. Fraisse, and M. Pailha, Stratification enhancement for an integrated collector storage solar water heater (icsswh), sI: IEA-ECES Annex 31 Special Issue on Thermal Energy Storage, vol.106, pp.35-43, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01923906

I. González, C. D. Pérez-segarra, O. Lehmkuhl, S. Torras, and A. Oliva, Thermo-mechanical parametric analysis of packed-bed thermocline energy storage tanks, Applied Energy, vol.179, pp.1106-1122, 2016.

D. Romanchenko, J. Kensby, M. Odenberger, and F. Johnsson, Thermal energy storage in district heating: Centralised storage vs. storage in thermal inertia of buildings, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.162, pp.26-38, 2018.

A. Dehghan and A. Barzegar, Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.52, issue.1, pp.468-476, 2011.

M. Dadollahi and M. Mehrpooya, Modeling and investigation of high temperature phase change materials (pcm) in different storage tank configurations, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.161, pp.831-839, 2017.

S. Lu, T. Zhang, and Y. Chen, Study on the performance of heat storage and heat release of water storage tank with pcms, Energy and Buildings, vol.158, pp.1770-1780, 2018.

T. Bouhal, S. Ed-dîn-fertahi, T. Kousksou, and A. , Cfd thermal energy storage enhancement of pcm filling a cylindrical cavity equipped with submerged heating sources, Journal of Energy Storage, vol.18, pp.360-370, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02146078

S. Y. Kee, Y. Munusamy, and K. S. Ong, Review of solar water heaters incorporating solid-liquid organic phase change materials as thermal storage, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.131, pp.455-471, 2018.

S. Tarhan, A. Sari, and M. H. Yardim, Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with/without phase change materials, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.47, issue.15, pp.2143-2154, 2006.

M. Abdelsalam, P. Sarafraz, J. Cotton, and M. Lightstone, Heat transfer characteristics of a hybrid thermal energy storage tank with phase change materials (pcms) during indirect charging using isothermal coil heat exchanger, Solar Energy, vol.157, pp.462-476, 2017.

N. Ghaddar, A. Al-marafie, and A. Al-kandari, Numerical simulation of stratification behaviour in thermal storage tanks, Applied Energy, vol.32, issue.3, pp.225-239, 1989.

P. Steinert, S. Göppert, and B. Platzer, Transient calculation of charge and discharge cycles in thermally stratified energy storages, Solar Energy, vol.97, pp.505-516, 2013.

M. R. Assari, H. B. Tabrizi, and M. J. Movahedi, Experimental study on destruction of thermal stratification tank in solar collector performance, Journal of Energy Storage, vol.15, pp.124-132, 2018.

M. Y. Haller, E. Yazdanshenas, E. Andersen, C. Bales, W. Streicher et al., A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses, Solar Energy, vol.84, issue.6, pp.997-1007, 2010.

U. Jordan and S. Furbo, Thermal stratification in small solar domestic storage tanks caused by draw-offs, iSES Solar World Congress, vol.78, pp.291-300, 2003.

R. Gupta, G. Tiwari, A. Kumar, and Y. Gupta, Calculation of total solar fraction for different orientation of greenhouse using 3d-shadow analysis in auto-cad, Energy and Buildings, vol.47, pp.27-34, 2012.

S. Alizadeh, An experimental and numerical study of thermal stratification in a horizontal cylindrical solar storage tank, Solar Energy, vol.66, issue.6, pp.409-421, 1999.

Z. Ouyang and D. Li, Design of segmented high-performance thermoelectric generators with cost in consideration, Applied Energy, vol.221, pp.112-121, 2018.

W. Yaïci, M. Ghorab, and E. Entchev, 3d cfd study of the effect of inlet air flow maldistribution on plate-fin-tube heat exchanger design and thermal-hydraulic performance, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.101, pp.527-541, 2016.

S. Pal and M. Phaniraj, Determination of heat partition between tool and workpiece during fsw of ss304 using 3d cfd modeling, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol.222, pp.280-286, 2015.

G. Lomonaco, W. Borreani, M. Bruzzone, D. Chersola, G. Firpo et al., Initial thermal-hydraulic assessment by openfoam and fluent of a subcritical irradiation facility, Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, vol.6, pp.447-456, 2018.

T. Höhne, S. Kliem, and U. Bieder, Iaea crp benchmark of rocom pts test case for the use of cfd in reactor design using the cfd-codes ansys cfx and triocfd, Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol.333, pp.161-180, 2018.

S. Kumar, R. Grover, H. Yadav, P. Vijayan, U. Kannan et al., Experimental and numerical investigation on suppression of thermal stratification in a water-pool: Piv measurements and cfd simulations, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.138, pp.686-704, 2018.

B. Kur?un and K. Ökten, Effect of rectangular hot water tank position and aspect ratio on thermal stratification enhancement, Renewable Energy, vol.116, pp.639-646, 2018.

I. J. Moncho-esteve, M. Gasque, P. González-altozano, and G. Palau-salvador, Simple inlet devices and their influence on thermal stratification in a hot water storage tank, Energy and Buildings, vol.150, pp.625-638, 2017.

T. Bouhal, O. Rajad, T. Kousksou, A. Arid, T. E. Rhafiki et al., Cfd performance enhancement of a low cut-in speed current vertical tidal turbine through the nested hybridization of savonius and darrieus, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.169, pp.266-278, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02146085

S. Ed-dîn-fertahi, T. Bouhal, T. Kousksou, A. Jamil, and A. Benbassou, Experimental study and cfd thermal assessment of horizontal hot water storage tank integrating evacuated tube collectors with heat pipes, Solar Energy, vol.170, pp.234-251, 2018.

I. Tolias, S. Giannissi, A. Venetsanos, J. Keenan, V. Shentsov et al., Best practice guidelines in numerical simulations and cfd benchmarking for hydrogen safety applications, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2018.

F. Afshari, H. G. Zavaragh, B. Sahin, R. C. Grifoni, F. Corvaro et al., On numerical methods; optimization of cfd solution to evaluate fluid flow around a sample object at low re numbers, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, vol.152, pp.51-68, 2018.

M. F. El-amin and A. Al-ghamdi, Experiments and numerical simulation for a thermal vertical jet into a rectangular water tank, Results in Physics, vol.10, pp.680-692, 2018.

J. Davidson, D. Adams, and J. Miller, A coefficient to characterize mixing in solar water storage tanks, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, vol.116, issue.2, pp.94-99, 1994.

A. Chan, P. Smereka, and D. Giusti, A numerical study of transient mixed convection flows in a thermal storage tank, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, vol.105, issue.3, pp.246-253, 1983.

J. Fernández-seara, F. J. Uh?´a, and J. Sieres, Experimental analysis of a domestic electric hot water storage tank. part ii: dynamic mode of operation, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.27, issue.1, pp.137-144, 2007.

E. Andersen, S. Furbo, and J. Fan, Multilayer fabric stratification pipes for solar tanks, Solar Energy, vol.81, issue.10, pp.1219-1226, 2007.

A. Tinaikar, S. Advaith, U. K. Chetia, K. Manu, and S. Basu, 924 -935, special Issue: Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the United States (SERIIUS) -Concentrated Solar Power, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.109, 2016.

Y. H. Zurigat, P. R. Liche, and A. J. Ghajar, Influence of inlet geometry on mixing in thermocline thermal energy storage, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.34, issue.1, pp.115-125, 1991.

A. J. Ghajar and Y. H. Zurigat, Numerical study of the effect of inlet geometry on stratification in thermal energy storage, Numerical Heat Transfer, vol.19, issue.1, pp.65-83, 1991.

J. Van-berkel, C. C. Rindt, and A. A. Van-steenhoven, Modelling of two-layer stratified stores, Solar Energy, vol.67, issue.1-3, pp.65-78, 1999.

N. Brown and F. Lai, Experimental study of stratification in a liquid storage tank with a porous manifold, ASME 2004 Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering Summer Conference, pp.21-28, 2004.

E. Oró, A. Castell, J. Chiu, V. Martin, and L. F. Cabeza, Stratification analysis in packed bed thermal energy storage systems, Applied Energy, vol.109, pp.476-487, 2013.

A. Ramana, R. Venkatesh, V. A. Raj, and R. Velraj, Experimental investigation of the lhs system and comparison of the stratification performance with the shs system using cfd simulation, Solar Energy, vol.103, pp.378-389, 2014.

E. Hahne and Y. Chen, Numerical study of flow and heat transfer characteristics in hot water stores, Solar Energy, vol.64, issue.1, pp.9-18, 1998.

G. Rosengarten, G. Morrison, and M. Behnia, A second law approach to characterising thermally stratified hot water storage with application to solar water heaters, Journal of solar energy engineering, vol.121, issue.4, pp.194-200, 1999.

J. Osorio, A. Rivera-alvarez, M. Swain, and J. Ordonez, Exergy analysis of discharging multi-tank thermal energy storage systems with constant heat extraction, Applied Energy, vol.154, pp.333-343, 2015.

E. Mathioulakis and V. Belessiotis, A new heat-pipe type solar domestic hot water system, Solar Energy, vol.72, issue.1, pp.13-20, 2002.

Z. Zhao and C. Avedisian, Enhancing forced air convection heat transfer from an array of parallel plate fins using a heat pipe, International journal of heat and mass transfer, vol.40, issue.13, pp.3135-3147, 1997.

H. Jouhara and R. Meskimmon, Experimental investigation of wraparound loop heat pipe heat exchanger used in energy efficient air handling units, the 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Environmental Protection, vol.35, pp.4592-4599, 2009.

K. Kerrigan, H. Jouhara, G. O'donnell, and A. Robinson, Heat pipe-based radiator for low grade geothermal energy conversion in domestic space heating, Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, vol.19, issue.4, pp.1154-1163, 2011.

A. Faghri, Heat pipe science and technology, 1995.

N. Z. Aung and S. Li, Numerical investigation on effect of riser diameter and inclination on system parameters in a two-phase closed loop thermosyphon solar water heater, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.75, pp.25-35, 2013.

H. Shabgard, M. J. Allen, N. Sharifi, S. P. Benn, A. Faghri et al., Heat pipe heat exchangers and heat sinks: Opportunities, challenges, applications, analysis, and state of the art, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.89, pp.138-158, 2015.

K. Shah, C. Mckee, D. Chalise, and A. Jain, Experimental and numerical investigation of core cooling of li-ion cells using heat pipes, Energy, vol.113, pp.852-860, 2016.

J. Danielewicz, B. ?niechowska, M. Sayegh, N. Fidorów, and H. Jouhara, Three-dimensional numerical model of heat losses from district heating network pre-insulated pipes buried in the ground, Energy, vol.108, pp.172-184, 2014.

L. M. Poplaski, A. Faghri, and T. L. Bergman, Analysis of internal and external thermal resistances of heat pipes including fins using a three-dimensional numerical simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.102, pp.455-469, 2016.

R. Ranjan, J. Y. Murthy, S. V. Garimella, and U. Vadakkan, A numerical model for transport in flat heat pipes considering wick microstructure effects, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.54, issue.1-3, pp.153-168, 2011.

R. Nair and C. Balaji, Synergistic analysis of heat transfer characteristics of an internally finned two phase closed thermosyphon, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.101, pp.720-729, 2016.

M. Schreiber, W. W. Wits, and G. J. Te-riele, Numerical and experimental investigation of a counter-current two-phase thermosyphon with cascading pools, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.99, pp.133-146, 2016.

Z. Tong, X. Liu, Z. Li, and Y. Jiang, Experimental study on the effect of fill ratio on an {R744} two-phase thermosyphon loop, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.99, pp.302-312, 2016.

P. Zhang, B. Wang, W. Shi, L. Han, and X. Li, Modeling and performance analysis of a two-phase thermosyphon loop with partially/fully liquid-filled downcomer, International Journal of Refrigeration, vol.58, pp.172-185, 2015.

E. Gedik, Experimental investigation of the thermal performance of a two-phase closed thermosyphon at different operating conditions, Energy and Buildings, vol.127, pp.1096-1107, 2016.

F. Jiang, Y. Tan, G. Peng-qi, W. Chen, X. Yu-han et al., Heat transfer enhancement in a closed thermosyphon with thermally conductive pa6/water, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.101, pp.322-329, 2016.

K. Kafeel and A. Turan, Simulation of the response of a thermosyphon under pulsed heat input conditions, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, vol.80, pp.33-40, 2014.

H. Jouhara, B. Fadhl, and L. C. Wrobel, Three-dimensional cfd simulation of geyser boiling in a two-phase closed thermosyphon, special Issue: Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Developments: A special issue on the 8th International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Environmental Protection, vol.41, pp.11-14, 2015.

C. Hirt and B. Nichols, Volume of fluid (vof) method for the dynamics of free boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.39, issue.1, pp.201-225, 1981.

W. Lee, A pressure iteration scheme for two-phase flow modeling (technical paper no. la-ur-79-975), 1979.

Z. Liu, Y. Li, and Y. Jin, Pressurization performance and temperature stratification in cryogenic final stage propellant tank, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.106, pp.211-220, 2016.

J. Brackbill, D. B. Kothe, and C. Zemach, A continuum method for modeling surface tension, Journal of computational physics, vol.100, issue.2, pp.335-354, 1992.

J. Taylor, Introduction to error analysis, the study of uncertainties in physical measurements, 1997.

R. W. Macgregor, P. A. Kew, and D. A. Reay, Investigation of low global warming potential working fluids for a closed two-phase thermosyphon, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.51, issue.1, pp.917-925, 2013.

F. Ed-din, Simulation et optimisation des systemes de production d'eau chaude sanitaire solaire (bourse iresen)'co-tutelle de these avec univ, 2016.

S. Fertahi, T. Bouhal, Y. Agrouaz, T. Kousksou, T. E. Rhafiki et al., Performance optimization of a two-phase closed thermosyphon through cfd numerical simulations, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02153689

T. Kousksou, A. Allouhi, M. Belattar, A. Jamil, T. E. Rhafiki et al., Renewable energy potential and national policy directions for sustainable development in morocco, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.47, pp.46-57, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02153675

O. B. Isgor and A. G. Razaqpur, Modelling steel corrosion in concrete structures, Materials and Structures, vol.39, issue.3, pp.291-302, 2006.

F. Auricchio and L. Petrini, A three-dimensional model describing stress-temperature induced solid phase transformations: thermomechanical coupling and hybrid composite applications, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, vol.61, issue.5, pp.716-737, 2004.

J. Aboudi and Y. Freed, Two-way thermomechanically coupled micromechanical analysis of shape memory alloy composites, Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures, vol.1, issue.5, pp.937-955, 2006.

D. Christ and S. Reese, A finite element model for shape memory alloys considering thermomechanical couplings at large strains, International Journal of solids and Structures, vol.46, issue.20, pp.3694-3709, 2009.

B. Yavari, W. Tworzydlo, and J. Bass, A thermomechanical model to predict the temperature distribution of steady state rolling tires, Tire Science and Technology, vol.21, issue.3, pp.163-178, 1993.

Q. Liu, P. Zhang, S. Cheng, J. Niu, and D. Liu, Heat transfer and thermo-elastic analysis of copper steel composite stave, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.103, pp.341-348, 2016.

D. Huang and F. Huang, Coupled thermo-fluid stress analysis of kambara reactor with various anchors in the stirring of molten iron at extremely high temperatures, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.73, issue.1, pp.222-228, 2014.

M. ?mindák, P. Novák, V. Deký?, and Z. Pelagi?, Finite element thermo-mechanical transient analysis of concrete structure, Procedia Engineering, vol.65, pp.224-229, 2013.

Y. Li, C. Wang, and R. Wang, The thermal stress analysis and structure optimum of neck tube with vertical cryogenic insulated cylinders based on {ANSYS}, Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol.252, pp.144-152, 2012.

L. Galantucci and L. Tricarico, Thermo-mechanical simulation of a rolling process with an {FEM} approach, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, issue.99, pp.242-245, 1999.

D. Riedlbauer, M. Drexler, D. Drummer, P. Steinmann, and J. Mergheim, Modelling, simulation and experimental validation of heat transfer in selective laser melting of the polymeric material {PA12}, Computational Materials Science, vol.93, pp.239-248, 2014.

A. Belhocine and M. Bouchetara, Simulation of fully coupled thermo mechanical analysis of disc brake rotor, Wseas Transactions on Applied and Theoretical Mechanics, vol.7, issue.3, 2012.

J. A. Shaw, Simulations of localized thermo-mechanical behavior in a niti shape memory alloy, International Journal of Plasticity, vol.16, issue.5, pp.75-78, 2000.

A. Souahlia, H. Dhaou, S. Mellouli, F. Askri, A. Jemni et al., Experimental study of metal hydridebased hydrogen storage tank at constant supply pressure, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.39, issue.14, pp.7365-7372, 2014.

Y. Yan, Y. Yan, Y. He, J. Li, Y. Su et al., Hydrogen-induced cracking and service safety evaluation for precipitation strengthened austenitic stainless steel as hydrogen storage tank, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.39, issue.31, pp.17921-17928, 2014.

T. Hua, R. Ahluwalia, J. Peng, M. Kromer, S. Lasher et al., Technical assessment of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.36, issue.4, pp.3037-3049, 2011.

C. M. Sabliov, D. A. Salvi, and D. Boldor, High frequency electromagnetism, heat transfer and fluid flow coupling in ansys multiphysics, Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, vol.41, issue.4, pp.5-17, 2006.

H. Liu, P. Li, H. Xiao, and W. Mu, The fluid-solid coupling analysis of screw conveyor in drilling fluid centrifuge based on {ANSYS}, vol.1, pp.251-256, 2015.

M. A. Soto and R. Venkatasubramanian, Ansys-based detailed thermo-mechanical modeling of complex thermoelectric power designs, Thermoelectrics, 2005. ICT 2005. 24th International Conference on, pp.219-221, 2005.

J. Holah and R. Thorpe, Cleanability in relation to bacterial retention on unused and abraded domestic sink materials, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol.69, issue.4, pp.599-608, 1990.

C. F. Estrada, L. A. Godoy, and T. Prato, Thermo-mechanical behavior of a thin concrete shell during its early age, Thin-Walled Structures, vol.44, issue.5, pp.483-495, 2006.

L. L. Shreir, Corrosion: corrosion control, 2013.

P. Armstrong, D. Ager, I. Thompson, and M. Mcculloch, Improving the energy storage capability of hot water tanks through wall material specification, Energy, vol.78, pp.128-140, 2014.

B. Eker and E. Yuksel, Solutions to corrosion caused by agricultural chemicals, Trakia Journal of Sciences, vol.3, issue.7, pp.1-6, 2005.

J. Lawrence, L. Li, and J. Spencer, The effects of high-power diode laser radiation on the wettability, adhesion and bonding characteristics of an alumina/silica-based oxide and vitreous enamel, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol.115, issue.2, pp.273-281, 1999.

A. S. Fahmy and A. M. Khalil, Wall thickness variation effect on tank's shape behaviour under critical harmonic settlement, Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol.55, issue.4, pp.3205-3209, 2016.

J. Robinson and P. King, Electrochemical behavior of the magnesium anode, Journal of the electrochemical society, vol.108, issue.1, pp.36-41, 1961.

D. Lukkassen and A. Meidell, Advanced materials and structures and their fabrication processes, 2003.

Y. Shen, Thermo-mechanical stresses in copper interconnects -a modeling analysis, Microelectronic Engineering, vol.83, issue.3, pp.446-459, 2006.

J. Rogers, A. Dowsett, P. Dennis, J. Lee, and C. Keevil, Influence of temperature and plumbing material selection on biofilm formation and growth of legionella pneumophila in a model potable water system containing complex microbial flora, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.60, issue.5, pp.1585-1592, 1994.

P. Nwosu and D. Agbiogwu, Thermal analysis of a novel fibre-reinforced plastic solar hot water storage tank, Energy, vol.60, pp.109-115, 2013.

M. Kou?il, P. Novák, and M. Bojko, Threshold chloride concentration for stainless steels activation in concrete pore solutions, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.40, issue.3, pp.431-436, 2010.

I. V. Wikholm, Storage type solar water heater, uS Patent 4,003, p.367, 1977.

J. Yang, S. Preidikman, and E. Balaras, A strongly coupled, embedded-boundary method for fluid-structure interactions of elastically mounted rigid bodies, Journal of Fluids and Structures, vol.24, issue.2, pp.167-182, 2008.

Y. Jiang, S. Yoshimura, R. Imai, H. Katsura, T. Yoshida et al., Quantitative evaluation of flow-induced structural vibration and noise in turbomachinery by full-scale weakly coupled simulation, Journal of Fluids and Structures, vol.23, issue.4, pp.531-544, 2007.

Y. G. Soloveichik, M. G. Persova, D. V. Vagin, T. B. Epanchintseva, P. A. Domnikov et al., 3d modeling of thermo-mechanical behavior of composite-made nose caps of hypersonic vehicles, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.99, pp.1152-1164, 2016.

O. C. Zienkiewicz and R. L. Taylor, The finite element method for solid and structural mechanics, 2005.

M. Joun and Y. Kang, Finite element analysis of temperatures, metal flow, and boll pressure in hot strip rolling, 1993.

C. Borri and W. Zahlten, Fully simulated nonlinear analysis of large structures subjected to turbulent artificial wind *, Journal of Structural Mechanics, vol.19, issue.2, pp.213-250, 1991.

P. Bordui, J. Jacco, G. Loiacono, R. Stolzenberger, and J. Zola, Growth of large single crystals of ktiopo4 (ktp) from high-temperature solution using heat pipe based furnace system, Journal of crystal growth, vol.84, issue.3, pp.403-408, 1987.

I. González, C. D. Pérez-segarra, O. Lehmkuhl, S. Torras, and A. Oliva, Thermo-mechanical parametric analysis of packed-bed thermocline energy storage tanks, Applied Energy, vol.179, pp.1106-1122, 2016.

A. Bianchini, G. Ferrara, L. Ferrari, and S. Magnani, An improved model for the performance estimation of an h-darrieus wind turbine in skewed flow, Wind Engineering, vol.36, issue.6, pp.667-686, 2012.

F. Balduzzi, A. Bianchini, R. Maleci, G. Ferrara, and L. Ferrari, Critical issues in the cfd simulation of darrieus wind turbines, Renewable Energy, vol.85, pp.419-435, 2016.

Y. Wang, L. Ku, S. Suo, Y. Dang, Z. Ge et al., Finite element analysis on von mises stress distributions of si dsp, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol.16, issue.1, pp.165-170, 2013.

K. Khanna, V. Gupta, and S. Nigam, Creep analysis in functionally graded rotating disc using tresca criterion and comparison with von-mises criterion, 5th International Conference of Materials Processing and Characterization (ICMPC 2016, vol.4, pp.2431-2438, 2017.

M. Cetkovic, Thermo-mechanical bending of laminated composite and sandwich plates using layerwise displacement model, Composite Structures, vol.125, pp.388-399, 2015.

K. Renji and S. J. Florence, Estimation of strains / stresses in composite panels using statistical energy analysis, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol.408, pp.400-410, 2017.

K. N. Kalfas and S. A. Mitoulis, Performance of steel-laminated rubber bearings subjected to combinations of axial loads and shear strains, x International Conference on Structural Dynamics, vol.199, pp.2979-2984, 2017.

Y. J. Chao, Ultimate strength and failure mechanism of resistance spot weld subjected to tensile, shear, or combined tensile/shear loads, Transactions-American Society Of Mechanical Engineers Journal Of Engineering Materials And Technology, vol.125, issue.2, pp.125-132, 2003.

K. Ikeya, M. Shimoda, and J. Shi, Multi-objective free-form optimization for shape and thickness of shell structures with composite materials, Composite Structures, vol.135, pp.262-275, 2016.

J. Hunt, Recent activities in mena countries, World Pumps, issue.1, pp.27-31, 2011.

A. M. Mohamed, A. Al-habaibeh, H. Abdo, and S. Elabar, Towards exporting renewable energy from mena region to europe: An investigation into domestic energy use and householders' energy behaviour in libya, Applied Energy, vol.146, pp.247-262, 2015.

H. Al-madani, The performance of a cylindrical solar water heater, Renewable Energy, vol.31, issue.11, pp.1751-1763, 2006.

H. F. Naspolini, H. Militão, and R. Rüther, The role and benefits of solar water heating in the energy demands of low-income dwellings in brazil, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.51, issue.12, pp.2835-2845, 2010.

R. Tang, Y. Yang, and W. Gao, Comparative studies on thermal performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters with different collector tilt-angles, Solar Energy, vol.85, issue.7, pp.1381-1389, 2011.

I. Budihardjo and G. Morrison, Performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters, Solar Energy, vol.83, issue.1, pp.49-56, 2009.

A. M. Kandari, Thermal stratification in hot storage-tanks, Applied Energy, vol.35, issue.4, pp.299-315, 1990.

M. Esen, Thermal performance of a solar cooker integrated vacuum-tube collector with heat pipes containing different refrigerants, Solar Energy, vol.76, issue.6, pp.751-757, 2004.

M. Esen and H. Esen, Experimental investigation of a two-phase closed thermosyphon solar water heater, Solar Energy, vol.79, issue.5, pp.459-468, 2005.

M. Esen and T. Ayhan, Development of a model compatible with solar assisted cylindrical energy storage tank and variation of stored energy with time for different phase change materials, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.37, issue.12, pp.1775-1785, 1996.

M. Esen, A. Durmu?, and A. Durmu?, Geometric design of solar-aided latent heat store depending on various parameters and phase change materials, Solar Energy, vol.62, issue.1, pp.104-111, 1998.

M. Esen, Thermal performance of a solar-aided latent heat store used for space heating by heat pump, Solar Energy, vol.69, issue.1, pp.15-25, 2000.

L. Kenjo, C. Inard, and D. Caccavelli, Experimental and numerical study of thermal stratification in a mantle tank of a solar domestic hot water system, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.27, issue.11, pp.1986-1995, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00312242

M. Gasque, P. González-altozano, D. Maurer, I. J. Moncho-esteve, R. P. Gutiérrez-colomer et al., Study of the influence of inner lining material on thermal stratification in a hot water storage tank, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.75, pp.344-356, 2015.

M. Swiatek, Etude de la convection naturelle et de la stratification thermique dans une cavité inclinée et chauffée au milieu: application aux capteurs solaires autostockeurs, 2015.

M. Y. Haller, C. A. Cruickshank, W. Streicher, S. J. Harrison, E. Andersen et al., Methods to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes-review and theoretical comparison, Solar Energy, vol.83, issue.10, pp.1847-1860, 2009.

Y. Han, R. Wang, and Y. Dai, Thermal stratification within the water tank, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.13, issue.5, pp.1014-1026, 2009.

A. Barzegar and A. Dehghan, Transient thermal behavior of a vertical solar storage tank with a mantle heat exchanger during no-flow operation, Journal of applied fluid Mechanics, vol.2, issue.1, 2009.

Z. Lavan and J. Thompson, Experimental study of thermally stratified hot water storage tanks, Solar Energy, vol.19, issue.5, pp.519-524, 1977.

M. Rosen, Appropriate thermodynamic performance measures for closed systems for thermal energy storage, Journal of solar energy engineering, vol.114, issue.2, pp.100-105, 1992.

E. Hahne and Y. Chen, Numerical study of flow and heat transfer characteristics in hot water stores, Solar Energy, vol.64, issue.1, pp.9-18, 1998.

H. Yoo and E. Pak, Theoretical model of the charging process for stratified thermal storage tanks, Solar Energy, vol.51, issue.6, pp.513-519, 1993.

L. J. Shah, E. Andersen, and S. Furbo, Theoretical and experimental investigations of inlet stratifiers for solar storage tanks, Applied thermal engineering, vol.25, issue.14, pp.2086-2099, 2005.

P. González-altozano, M. Gasque, F. Ibáñez, and R. P. Gutiérrez-colomer, New methodology for the characterisation of thermal performance in a hot water storage tank during charging, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.84, pp.196-205, 2015.

D. Jafari, A. Franco, S. Filippeschi, and P. D. Marco, Two-phase closed thermosyphons: A review of studies and solar applications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.53, pp.575-593, 2016.

A. Bejan, Convection heat transfer john wiley & sons new york, Nomenclature cross sectional area, RaIPr, vol.4, 1984.

A. Hasan, Thermosyphon solar water heaters: effect of storage tank volume and configuration on efficiency, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.38, issue.9, pp.847-854, 1997.

B. Baeten, T. Confrey, S. Pecceu, F. Rogiers, and L. Helsen, A validated model for mixing and buoyancy in stratified hot water storage tanks for use in building energy simulations, Applied Energy, vol.172, pp.217-229, 2016.

C. Koroneos and M. Tsarouhis, Exergy analysis and life cycle assessment of solar heating and cooling systems in the building environment, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.32, pp.52-60, 2012.

F. Ascione, N. Bianco, R. F. De-masi, F. De'rossi, and G. P. Vanoli, Energy retrofit of an educational building in the ancient center of benevento. feasibility study of energy savings and respect of the historical value, Energy and Buildings, vol.95, pp.172-183, 2015.

S. Kalogirou, Thermal performance, economic and environmental life cycle analysis of thermosiphon solar water heaters, Solar Energy, vol.83, issue.1, pp.39-48, 2009.

M. S. Al-soud and E. S. Hrayshat, A 50mw concentrating solar power plant for jordan, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.17, issue.6, pp.625-635, 2009.

A. W. Bhutto, A. A. Bazmi, G. Zahedi, and J. J. Kleme?, A review of progress in renewable energy implementation in the gulf cooperation council countries, special Volume: PSE Asia for Cleaner Production, vol.71, pp.168-180, 2014.

R. Delgado and H. Campbell, Adaptation and sizing of solar water heaters in desert areas: For residential and hotels, Energy Procedia, vol.57, pp.2725-2732, 2013.

A. Qazi, H. Fayaz, A. Wadi, R. G. Raj, N. Rahim et al., The artificial neural network for solar radiation prediction and designing solar systems: a systematic literature review, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.104, pp.1-12, 2015.

P. A. Ferrer, Average economic performance of solar water heaters for low density dwellings across south africa, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.76, pp.507-515, 2017.

C. Aigbavboa, Low-income housing residents' challenges with their government install solar water heaters: A case of south africa, clean, Efficient and Affordable Energy for a Sustainable Future: The 7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2015). doi, vol.75, pp.495-501, 2015.

V. H. Quej, J. Almorox, M. Ibrakhimov, and L. Saito, Estimating daily global solar radiation by day of the year in six cities located in the yucatán peninsula, mexico, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.141, pp.75-82, 2017.

J. A. Rosas-flores, D. Rosas-flores, and J. L. Zayas, Potential energy saving in urban and rural households of mexico by use of solar water heaters, using geographical information system, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.53, pp.243-252, 2016.

G. He, Y. Zheng, Y. Wu, Z. Cui, and K. Qian, Promotion of building-integrated solar water heaters in urbanized areas in china: Experience, potential, and recommendations, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.42, pp.643-656, 2015.

F. Urban, S. Geall, and Y. Wang, Solar pv and solar water heaters in china: Different pathways to low carbon energy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.64, pp.531-542, 2016.

H. Runqing, S. Peijun, and W. Zhongying, An overview of the development of solar water heater industry in china, Energy Policy, vol.51, pp.46-51, 2012.

D. Li and S. Liao, An integrated approach to evaluate the performance of solar water heater in the urban environment, Energy and Buildings, vol.69, pp.562-571, 2014.

H. Benli, Potential application of solar water heaters for hot water production in turkey, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.54, pp.99-109, 2016.

S. Rezvani, P. Bahri, T. Urmee, G. Baverstock, and A. Moore, Techno-economic and reliability assessment of solar water heaters in australia based on monte carlo analysis, Renewable Energy, vol.105, pp.774-785, 2017.

K. Chang, T. Lee, W. Lin, and K. Chung, Outlook for solar water heaters in taiwan, Energy Policy, vol.36, issue.1, pp.66-72, 2008.

W. Lin, K. Chang, and K. Chung, Payback period for residential solar water heaters in taiwan, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.41, pp.901-906, 2015.

V. Saini, S. Tiwari, and G. Tiwari, Environ economic analysis of various types of photovoltaic technologies integrated with greenhouse solar drying system, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.156, pp.30-40, 2017.

S. Kordana, D. Ly?, and J. Dziopak, Rationalization of water and energy consumption in shower systems of singlefamily dwelling houses, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.82, pp.58-69, 2014.

K. M. Roufechaei, A. H. Bakar, and A. A. Tabassi, Energy-efficient design for sustainable housing development, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.65, pp.380-388, 2014.

P. R. Chao, S. Umapathi, and W. Saman, Water consumption characteristics at a sustainable residential development with rainwater-sourced hot water supply, special Issue: Toward a Regenerative Sustainability Paradigm for the Built Environment: from vision to reality, vol.109, pp.190-202, 2015.

S. Baljit, H. Chan, and K. Sopian, Review of building integrated applications of photovoltaic and solar thermal systems, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.137, pp.677-689, 2016.

S. Jaisankar, J. Ananth, S. Thulasi, S. Jayasuthakar, and K. Sheeba, A comprehensive review on solar water heaters, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.15, issue.6, pp.3045-3050, 2011.

D. Zambrana-vasquez, A. Aranda-usón, I. Zabalza-bribián, A. Jañez, E. Llera-sastresa et al., Arrizabalaga, Environmental assessment of domestic solar hot water systems: a case study in residential and hotel buildings, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.88, pp.29-42, 2015.

C. J. Koroneos and E. A. Nanaki, Life cycle environmental impact assessment of a solar water heater, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.37, pp.154-161, 2012.

N. Arnaoutakis, M. Souliotis, and S. Papaefthimiou, Comparative experimental life cycle assessment of two commercial solar thermal devices for domestic applications, Renewable Energy, vol.111, pp.187-200, 2017.

E. Kontopoulos, G. Martinopoulos, D. Lazarou, and N. Bassiliades, An ontology-based decision support tool for optimizing domestic solar hot water system selection, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.112, pp.4636-4646, 2016.

R. Shrivastava, V. Kumar, and S. Untawale, Modeling and simulation of solar water heater: A {TRNSYS} perspective, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.67, pp.126-143, 2017.

A. Moreau and F. Laurencelle, Field study of solar domestic water heaters in quebec, 1st International Conference on Solar Heating and Coolingfor Buildings and Industry (SHC 2012, vol.30, pp.1331-1338, 2012.

N. Suresh and B. S. Rao, Solar energy for process heating: A case study of select indian industries, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.151, pp.439-451, 2017.

H. Hamouchene, The ouarzazate solar plant in morocco: Triumphal 'green'capitalism and the privatization of nature

H. Pandya and A. K. Behura, Experimental study of v-through solar water heater for tilt angle and glass transmissivity, international Conference on Recent Advancement in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, {RAAR} 2016, vol.109, pp.10-12, 2016.

J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman, Solar engineering of thermal processes, 2013.

E. M. Kleinbach, W. Beckman, and S. Klein, Performance study of one-dimensional models for stratified thermal storage tanks, Solar energy, vol.50, issue.2, pp.155-166, 1993.

W. Buckles and S. Klein, Analysis of solar domestic hot water heaters, Solar Energy, vol.25, issue.5, pp.417-424, 1980.

X. Zhang and F. Wang, Hybrid input-output analysis for life-cycle energy consumption and carbon emissions of china's building sector, Building and Environment, vol.104, pp.188-197, 2016.

T. Ming, W. Liu, and S. Caillol, Fighting global warming by climate engineering: Is the earth radiation management and the solar radiation management any option for fighting climate change?, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.31, pp.792-834, 2014.

B. Greening and A. Azapagic, Domestic solar thermal water heating: A sustainable option for the uk?, Renewable Energy, vol.63, pp.23-36, 2014.

W. M. Hashim, A. T. Shomran, H. A. Jurmut, T. S. Gaaz, A. A. Kadhum et al., Al-Amiery, Case study on solar water heating for flat plate collector, Case studies in thermal engineering, vol.12, pp.666-671, 2018.

M. Hadjiat, M. Hazmoune, S. Ouali, A. Gama, and M. Yaiche, Design and analysis of a novel ics solar water heater with cpc reflectors, Journal of Energy Storage, vol.16, pp.203-210, 2018.

J. C. Evarts and L. G. Swan, Domestic hot water consumption estimates for solar thermal system sizing, Energy and Buildings, vol.58, pp.58-65, 2013.

H. M. Ur-rehman and F. A. Al-sulaiman, Optimum selection of solar water heating (swh) systems based on their comparative techno-economic feasibility study for the domestic sector of saudi arabia, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.62, pp.336-349, 2016.

L. Ayompe, A. Duffy, S. Mccormack, and M. Conlon, Validated {TRNSYS} model for forced circulation solar water heating systems with flat plate and heat pipe evacuated tube collectors, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.31, issue.8-9, pp.1536-1542, 2011.

Y. S. Too, G. Morrison, and M. Behnia, Performance of solar water heaters with narrow mantle heat exchangers, Solar Energy, vol.83, issue.3, pp.350-362, 2009.

S. Colle and T. Koller, Simulation and performance analysis of a solar domestic hot water system controlled by weather forecast information, Energy Procedia, vol.57, pp.2496-2505, 2013.

L. Passos, J. M. Cardemil, and S. Colle, Feasibility study of using domestic solar hot water systems as alternative to reduce the electricity peak demand in brazil, Energy Procedia, vol.57, pp.2487-2495, 2014.

G. Martínez-rodríguez, A. L. Fuentes-silva, and M. Picón-núñez, Solar thermal networks operating with evacuatedtube collectors, 2017.

M. Abdunnabi, K. Alakder, N. Alkishriwi, and S. Abughres, Experimental validation of forced circulation of solar water heating systems in {TRNSYS}, Energy Procedia, vol.57, pp.2477-2486, 2013.

Z. Zhou, L. Wang, C. Li, and A. Ebert, Performance analysis of a collective solar domestic water-heating system in the temperate zone of yunnan province, china, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, vol.9, issue.3, pp.60-65, 2016.

M. S. Buker and S. B. Riffat, Building integrated solar thermal collectors-a review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.51, pp.327-346, 2015.

A. Jamar, Z. Majid, W. Azmi, M. Norhafana, and A. Razak, A review of water heating system for solar energy applications, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.76, pp.178-187, 2016.

K. Tanha, A. S. Fung, and R. Kumar, Performance of two domestic solar water heaters with drain water heat recovery units: Simulation and experimental investigation, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.90, pp.444-459, 2015.

J. B. Lima, R. T. Prado, and V. M. Taborianski, Optimization of tank and flat-plate collector of solar water heating system for single-family households to assure economic efficiency through the {TRNSYS} program, Renewable Energy, vol.31, issue.10, pp.1581-1595, 2006.

M. R. Assari, H. B. Tabrizi, and M. J. Movahedi, Experimental study on destruction of thermal stratification tank in solar collector performance, Journal of Energy Storage, vol.15, pp.124-132, 2018.

S. Ed-din, A. Fertahi, A. Jamil, and . Benbassou, Review on solar thermal stratified storage tanks (stsst): Insight on stratification studies and efficiency indicators, Solar Energy, vol.176, pp.126-145, 2018.

J. A. Alfaro-ayala, O. A. López-núñez, F. Gómez-castro, J. Ramírez-minguela, A. Uribe-ramírez et al., Optimization of a solar collector with evacuated tubes using the simulated annealing and computational fluid dynamics, Energy Conversion and Management, vol.166, pp.343-355, 2018.

C. Garnier, T. Muneer, and J. Currie, Numerical and empirical evaluation of a novel building integrated collector storage solar water heater, Renewable Energy, vol.126, pp.281-295, 2018.

C. Yan, S. Wang, Z. Ma, and W. Shi, A simplified method for optimal design of solar water heating systems based on life-cycle energy analysis, Renewable Energy, vol.74, pp.271-278, 2015.

V. M. Bessa and R. T. Prado, Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by solar water heating systems and passive technologies in social housing, Energy Policy, vol.83, pp.138-150, 2015.

T. Bouhal, Y. Agrouaz, T. E. Rhafiki, T. Kousksou, Y. Zeraouli et al., Technical assessment, economic viability and investment risk analysis of solar heating/cooling systems in residential buildings in morocco, Solar Energy, vol.170, pp.1043-1062, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02146081

T. Bouhal, Y. Agrouaz, A. Allouhi, T. Kousksou, A. Jamil et al., Impact of load profile and collector technology on the fractional savings of solar domestic water heaters under various climatic conditions, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.42, issue.18, pp.13245-13258, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02153534

A. Jamil and A. Benbassou, Review on solar thermal stratified storage tanks (stsst): Insight on stratification studies and efficiency indicators, Solar Energy, vol.176, pp.126-145, 2018.

E. Bellos, C. Tzivanidis, and K. A. Antonopoulos, Exergetic, energetic and financial evaluation of a solar driven absorption cooling system with various collector types, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.102, pp.749-759, 2016.

O. Iken, M. Dlimi, R. Agounoun, and I. , Numerical investigation of energy performance and cost analysis of moroccan's building smart walls integrating vanadium dioxide, Solar Energy, vol.179, pp.249-263, 2019.

R. L. Oonk, D. E. Jones, and B. E. Cole-appel, Calculation of performance of n collectors in series from test data on a single collector, Solar Energy, vol.23, issue.6, pp.535-536, 1979.

T. Kousksou, P. Bruel, G. Cherreau, V. Leoussoff, and T. E. Rhafiki, Pcm storage for solar dhw: From an unfulfilled promise to a real benefit, Solar Energy, vol.85, issue.9, pp.2033-2040, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00867187

A. Baniassadi, M. Momen, and M. Amidpour, A new method for optimization of solar heat integration and solar fraction targeting in low temperature process industries, Energy, vol.90, pp.1674-1681, 2015.

A. Madhlopa and C. Johnstone, Model for computation of solar fraction in a single-slope solar still, Solar Energy, vol.83, issue.6, pp.873-882, 2009.

A. Moià-pol, V. Martínez-moll, R. P. Nadal, and J. M. Serra, Solar thermal potential for collective systems in palma beach (balearic island's), proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings and Industry (SHC 2013, vol.48, pp.1118-1123, 2014.

C. Fraga, F. Mermoud, P. Hollmuller, E. Pampaloni, and B. , Large solar assisted heat pump systems in collective housing: In-situ monitoring results for summer season, proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings and Industry (SHC 2013, vol.48, pp.1086-1095, 2014.

A. Bertrand, A. Mastrucci, N. Schüler, R. Aggoune, and F. , Characterisation of domestic hot water end-uses for integrated urban thermal energy assessment and optimisation, Applied Energy, vol.186, pp.152-166, 2017.

M. D. Teles, K. A. Ismail, and A. Arabkoohsar, A new version of a low concentration evacuated tube solar collector: Optical and thermal investigation, Solar Energy, vol.180, pp.324-339, 2019.

L. Zhou, Y. Wang, and Q. Huang, Cfd investigation of a new flat plate collector with additional front side transparent insulation for use in cold regions, Renewable Energy, vol.138, pp.754-763, 2019.