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Simulation and optimization of solar domestic hot water production systems

Abstract : The world market for solar water heaters (SWH) is in great expansion. In fact, SWHs have become a challenging alternative system to gas and electric heating devices, because of their low CO2 emissions and their explicit involvement in the reduction of the building’s electric bills. L’institut de recherche en énergie solaire et énergies nouvelles (IRESEN-Morocco) is actually providing the necessary funding support to promote research and development field of SWHs in Morocco. Hence, in February 2016, SOL’R SHEMSY project has been defined in order to design and commercialize the first SWH integrating Evacuated Tube Collectors (ETC) with heat pipes, under the constraints of being accessible to the Moroccan public users. For the time being, several technologies of solar collectors with different brands are commercialized in Morocco such as flat plat collectors (FPC) and Evacuated Tube Collectors (ETC), besides to thermosyphon and forced circulation SWHs to convert solar energy to thermal energy, in order to produce hot water with the temperature required in several applications (individual, collective, industrial and the tertiary applications). However, a serious challenge of adjustment, integration and technology transfer should be considered before importing SWHs with ETC into the Moroccan market from supplier countries such as China, Spain, Germany and Turkey described as the leading manufacturer of SWH in the world. Indeed, the imported SWHs in Morocco presented thermo-mechanical failure modes after a short period of use such as the limestone deposited inside the storage tanks, corrosion and cracking of their inner shell... Taking into account the challenge of adjustment, integration and technology transfer of SWHs in Morocco is necessary, because the conditions of use differ from one country to another in terms of climatic conditions, which can be summarized in solar radiations, ambient temperature, wind velocity and the percentage of humidity in the air. In addition, the consumer's random consumption profile usually affects the thermal efficiency of the collector field and the overall solar fraction of SWHs.The main aim of this thesis is to carry out numerical simulations and optimizations of SWHs taking into account the techno-economic context of Morocco and its intrinsic weather conditions. Two simulation approaches were used to achieve this purpose. The first approach was based on unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation in order to enhance the efficiency of the heat pipes integrated inside ETCs and to increase the thermal stratification indicators of horizontal thermal storage tanks with submerged heat pipes. Finally, improve the storage tank’s structure using thermo-mechanical coupling simulations. The second approach is based on dynamic simulations, which have been performed to assess and optimize the energy performance of a collective hot water process intended to produce domestic hot water (DHW) under the climatic conditions of Fez city located in Morocco. Indeed, several parameters have been considered, in particular the effect of the storage tank volume, the brands of collectors and their technology from different manufacturers, the connection between the solar panel and the overall surface of the ETC and FPC which constitute the collector field etc.
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Saïf Ed-Dîn Fertahi. Simulation and optimization of solar domestic hot water production systems. Chemical and Process Engineering. Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour; Université Sidi Mohamed ben Abdellah (Fès, Maroc). Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019PAUU3034⟩. ⟨tel-02528278⟩

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