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La cornaline dans le Proche-Orient ancien, origines, réseaux d'échanges, mise en forme et fonction sociale

Abstract : In the ancient Near East various stones were used for jewelry production. For the Bronze and Iron Age, in the Caucasus, Luristan and Levant many carnelian beads have been collected from the beginning of the archaeological activities till present days. Up to now, no specific study had been led on carnelian omaments. Using the methodologies developed in other cultural areas, we can question and compare the numerous carnelian ornaments from theses three regions. Beside the typological approach, the beads were inspected on from the technological point of view. We attempted to reconstruct the different steps of production. Also to compare the stone ornaments of the Bronze Age and beginning Iron Age with the collections from Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus valley allows to complete the interpretation and to determine possible origins of the raw material. It appears that in South Caucasus the perception of carnelian is different from Luristan and Levant. While in these two last societies the nature of the stone is as important as its aspects for magical, religious and prestigious beliefs, in South Caucasia, the red color comes first and the nature of the stone can be secondary. Chronologically we see a change in the use of the carnelian from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age periods, in these three different regions. If in South Caucasus the use of carnelian decreases compared to other materials, in the Levant it increases, while in Luristan its use seems to change. These results can be related to the political organization of these societies and to the long distance exchanges between these areas.
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François Debrabant. La cornaline dans le Proche-Orient ancien, origines, réseaux d'échanges, mise en forme et fonction sociale. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA01H096⟩. ⟨tel-02527919⟩

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