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Adaptations nutritionnelles à l'activité physique chez l'adolescent en situation d'obésité : implication du système cognitif

Abstract : A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of exercise, favoring physiological, psychological and social improvements. Recent studies also suggest that exercise may be implicated in the control of appetite and energy intake, which remains to be further explored. These compensatory mechanisms, occurring after exercise, could be responsible for a limited weight loss achievement. Understanding the relation between exercises and eating behavior is a main priority. In this context, the purpose of this work was to explore the nutritional responses to physical activity in adolescents with obesity. In particular, we questioned the mechanisms that can explain the interactions between exercise and food intake. Different exercise modalities have been questioned and the physiological and neurocognitive pathways involved in the post-exercise regulation of energy intake were explored during and in response to multidisciplinary weight loss programs. During the first months of weight loss achievement, results indicate increase in compensatory mechanisms leading to higher appetite sensations, food reward and ad libitum energy intake. This phase of "weight loss resistance" was higher in adolescents with high level of cognitive restriction. Finally, the extension of the weight loss program results in a phase of stabilization and improvement of the control of energy intake. During this second phase, sensations of appetite, food reward, emotional and external eating as well as ad libitum energy intake decreased. In conclusion, physical activity appears to favor the reconnection between the hedonic system and the homeostatic system control of food intake.
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Maud Miguet. Adaptations nutritionnelles à l'activité physique chez l'adolescent en situation d'obésité : implication du système cognitif. Education. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019CLFAC064⟩. ⟨tel-02525907⟩

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