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Les ressources numériques comme support aux fonctions d'étayage de l'élève tuteur : cas d'un dispositif en sciences à l’école élémentaire

Abstract : The thesis focuses on benefits which the use of digital resources available in primary school is likely to bring to tutoring situations, practised between pupils of CP and CE1. It questions anew the relevance of entrusting the role of tutor to young children, since the functionalities of digital environments would make it possible to lighten their scaffolding functions, so that they'll become more comfortable in their mission. In light of the researches already conducted on peer tutoring and the use of digital technology in primary school, our research proposes to observe if the specificities of digital environments can encourage in young tutors the emergence of two components of a tutoring situation favourable to both partners: the "cognitive congruence" and the "tutor-effect". Our protocol is part of the school program (2015) of the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research: use digital tools, encourage peer help behaviour. Knowledge to be worked on is based on the understanding of simple scientific phenomena (the matter / states of water). The protocol is built on a pre-test, an experimental phase (correction session then training) and two post-tests. Post-test 1 proposes to reinvest the knowledge learnt during the experimental phase. Post-test 2 is identical to the pre-test. These tests are offered to CP and CE1 pupils working either in a tutoring situation, or in pairs with no assigned role, or individually. Within each group, a distinction is made according to whether CP pupils use a paper booklet or a computer. Our goal is to put the digital environment at the service of the tutorial relationship rather than learning itself. A first analysis, quantitative, compares the test results of each group by distinguishing, on the one hand, the level of the pupils and, on the other hand, the involved medium. It aims to check whether the use of a new environment allows both partners of the digital tutoring dyads to significantly progress, not only compared to pupils from the other groups, but also - and above all - compared to their counterparts who worked on a paper booklet. Regardless of the forms of work, our results indicate a progression of the scores of all the groups at the two post-tests but the only use of a different medium (paper or computer) does not influence the success of the pupils. On the matching between forms of work and medium, we find that, even in an ad hoc educational device, the digital medium does not allow tutees and tutors to pass their tests better than their peers using paper. The progression of the tutees and the "tutor-effect" expected in this context are therefore not observed. A second qualitative analysis focuses on the content of the exchanges between tutors and their tutee, depending on whether they interact by working on a paper booklet or on a computer. The observation focuses on the verbal and nonverbal aspects, in order to account for the cognitive congruence of the tutor. The Elan software allows the annotation of filmed exchanges. An overall analysis shows that congruence, if it is observable in the tutor, is not a relevant indicator to guarantee for the success of the tutee. On the other hand, a more detailed analysis reveals a link between the tutor's perception of his function and the success of his tutee.
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Maryline Mei. Les ressources numériques comme support aux fonctions d'étayage de l'élève tuteur : cas d'un dispositif en sciences à l’école élémentaire. Education. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCB177⟩. ⟨tel-02524951⟩

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