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Theses

Magnétomètre atomique tout-optique pour applications géophysiques, spatiales et médicales

Abstract : The measurement of the Earth magnetic field, using satellites of reduced volume –so called cube-sats or nano-sats– requires optically pumped magnetometers of strongly reduced size that can be operated as gradiometers without crosstalk between different sensors. In order to fulfill these conditions we developed an architecture for all-optical magnetometers.In this work, we present an all-optical isotopic solution for a scalar helium-4 magnetometer based on atomic alignment. This architecture originates in the combination of an optically created radiofrequency magnetic field realized by a vector light-shift and of an intensity modulation of the pump light. The first experimental tests of this configuration proved the existence of a working point that allows isotropic operation. First estimations of noise and precision using this configuration give hope to obtain equivalent performance than that of scalar isotropic magnetometers that were realized by the CEA-Leti for the mission Swarm.Additionally, the all-optical architectures respond to the needs that exist in the field of medical magnetic imaging. In fact, building a matrix of commonly used sensors involves problems of cross-talk between proximate magnetometers. The second focus of this thesis lies on all-optical magnetometers designated for the measurement of magnetic fields with small amplitudes. Exploring the configurations of Hanle magnetometers that are based on atomic alignment, we identified a technique which gives access to two magnetic field components while using only one single optical access to the gas cell, a solution that was experimentally tested. We theoretically investigate an extension of this configuration that allows the measurement of all three components of the magnetic field, using a partially depolarized light as optical pump.
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Gaëtan Lieb. Magnétomètre atomique tout-optique pour applications géophysiques, spatiales et médicales. Physique [physics]. Normandie Université, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMC252⟩. ⟨tel-02518404⟩

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