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L'État dans tous ses états : géographie comparée des politiques agricoles au Pérou et en Équateur

Abstract : This thesis compares spatial dimensions of public initiatives and their territorial implementations through agricultural policies in Peru and Ecuador. These two countries were not selected at random: they share an aspiration for decentralized decision making, but adhere to different political models. Peru holds to the principles of market economics, while Ecuador places greater emphasis on planning. How can a territory-based perspective be used to characterize agricultural policies in these two states with supposedly opposing political ideologies? What lessons can be drawn regarding the role of the State in agricultural development? Analysis of two public land organization projects reveals ways in which the two States prioritize different agriculture support strategies. The Peruvian initiative places greater emphasis on expansion of agribusiness, and has led to more significant negative impacts affecting established territorial structures. The Ecuadorian Ministry of Agriculture also implements support policies that are less selective and more heavily diversified. Nonetheless, these projects share a range of similarities: the States form alliances with major private companies; they fail to address both the challenges inherent in the ecological crisis and inequalities in access to land; they ignore existing territorial dynamics and local institutional structures; and they espouse an economic model based on exporting raw materials, to the detriment of any efforts to promote alternative forms of agriculture. Examination of project governance for these two initiatives shows that both States imposed vertical, hierarchical, and descending relationships on territorial collective structures, despite the competencies that they possess in the field of land organization. Finally, regardless of the ideologies that these governments hold, both States deploy the mechanisms of neoliberalism, defined as a system of governance based on the following elements: emphasis on the power of the State to centralize and impose vertical hierarchies; support for large-scale capitalist production structures; and delegation of responsibilities to local private organizations, while depriving them of any influence over policy making.
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Célia Auquier. L'État dans tous ses états : géographie comparée des politiques agricoles au Pérou et en Équateur. Géographie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PA01H029⟩. ⟨tel-02516021⟩

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