, Chapitre 1 : Spécificité d'hôte des Métapneumovirus Aviaires Publié dans, Avian Pathology, 2019.

C. L. References-afonso, G. K. Amarasinghe, K. Banyai, Y. Bao, C. F. Basler et al., Taxonomy of the order mononegavir-ales: update 2016. Archives of Virology, vol.161, pp.2351-2360, 2016.

D. J. Alexander, R. E. Gough, P. J. Wyeth, S. A. Lister, and N. J. Chettle, Viruses associated with turkey rhinotracheitis in Great Britain. The Veterinary Record, vol.118, pp.217-218, 1986.

M. H. Bayon-auboyer, C. Arnauld, D. Toquin, and N. Eterradossi, Nucleotide sequences of the F, L and G protein genes of two non-A/non-B avian pneumo-viruses (APV) reveal a novel APV subgroup, Journal of General Virology, vol.81, pp.2723-2733, 2000.

M. H. Bayon-auboyer, V. Jestin, D. Toquin, M. Cherbonnel, and N. Eterradossi, Comparison of F-, G-and N-based RT-PCR protocols with conventional virological procedures for the detection and typing of turkey rhino-tracheitis virus, Archives of Virology, vol.144, pp.1091-1109, 1999.

P. A. Brown, E. Lemaitre, F. X. Briand, C. Courtillon, O. Guionie et al., Molecular com-parisons of full length metapneumovirus (MPV) genomes, including newly determined French AMPV-C and -D iso-lates, further supports possible subclassification within the MPV genus, PLoS One, vol.9, 1989.

, South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, vol.56, pp.87-98

D. Cavanagh and T. Barrett, Pneumovirus-like charac-teristics of the mRNA and proteins of turkey rhinotrachei-tis virus, Virus Research, vol.11, pp.241-256, 1988.

M. S. Collins and R. E. Gough, Characterization of a virus associated with turkey rhinotracheitis, Journal of General Virology, vol.69, pp.909-916, 1988.

J. K. Cook, Avian rhinotracheitis, Revue Scientifique et Technique, vol.19, pp.602-613, 2000.

J. K. Cook, M. B. Huggins, S. J. Orbell, and D. A. Senne,

U. Colorado, Avian Pathology, vol.28, pp.607-617

N. Eterradossi, D. Toquin, M. Guittet, and G. Bennejean,

, challenge. Veterinary Medicine, vol.42, pp.175-186

N. Eterradossi, D. Toquin, J. P. Picault, and V. Jestin, , 2015.

, Métapneumoviroses Aviaires, Manuel de Pathologie Aviaire, pp.156-163

C. L. References-afonso, G. K. Amarasinghe, K. Banyai, Y. Bao, C. F. Basler et al., Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update, vol.161, pp.2351-2360, 2016.

M. H. Bayon-auboyer, V. Jestin, D. Toquin, M. Cherbonnel, and N. Eterradossi, Comparison of F-, G-and N-based RT-PCR protocols with conventional virological procedures for the detection and typing of turkey rhinotracheitis virus, Arch. Virol, vol.144, pp.1091-1109, 1999.

S. Biacchesi, Q. N. Pham, M. H. Skiadopoulos, B. R. Murphy, P. L. Collins et al., Infection of nonhuman primates with recombinant human metapneumovirus lacking the SH, G, or M2-2 protein categorizes each as a nonessential accessory protein and identifies vaccine candidates, J. Virol, vol.79, pp.12608-12613, 2005.

S. Biacchesi, M. H. Skiadopoulos, K. C. Tran, B. R. Murphy, P. L. Collins et al., Recovery of human metapneumovirus from cDNA: optimization of growth in vitro and expression of additional genes, Virology, vol.321, pp.247-259, 2004.

P. A. Brown, C. Allée, C. Courtillon, N. Szerman, E. Lemaitre et al., Host specificity of avian metapneumoviruses, Proceedings of the International Avian Respiratory Disease Conference, p.38, 2018.

P. A. Brown, E. Lemaitre, F. X. Briand, C. Courtillon, O. Guionie et al., Molecular comparisons of full length metapneumovirus (MPV) genomes, including newly determined French AMPV-C and -D isolates, further supports pos-sible subclassification within the MPV Genus, PloS One, vol.9, 2014.

P. A. Brown, C. Lupini, E. Catelli, J. Clubbe, E. Ricchizzi et al., A single polymerase (L) mutation in avian metapneumovirus increased virulence and partially maintained virus viability at an elevated temperature, J. Gen. Virol, vol.92, pp.346-354, 2011.

A. Bukreyev, S. S. Whitehead, B. R. Murphy, and P. L. Collins, Recombinant respiratory syncytial virus from which the entire SH gene has been deleted grows efficiently in cell culture and exhibits site-specific attenuation in the respiratory tract of the mouse, J. Virol, vol.71, pp.8973-8982, 1997.

M. De-graaf, E. J. Schrauwen, S. Herfst, G. Van-amerongen, A. D. Osterhaus et al., Fusion protein is the main determinant of metapneumovirus host tropism, J. Gen. Virol, 2009.

N. Eterradossi, D. Toquin, M. Guittet, and G. Bennejean, Evaluation of different turkey rhinotracheitis viruses used as antigens for serological testing following live vaccination and challenge, Vet. Med, vol.42, pp.175-186, 1995.

N. Eterradossi, D. Toquin, J. P. Picault, and V. Jestin, Métapneumoviroses aviaires, pp.156-163, 2015.

P. Giraud, F. X. Le-gros, J. F. Bouquet, D. Toquin, and G. Bennejean, Turkey Virology, vol.526, pp.138-145, 1987.

, Rhinotracheitis: Isolation of a viral agent and first trials with experimental inactivated or attenuated vaccines, Proceedings of the 36th Western Poultry Disease Conference, pp.94-95

R. C. Jones and S. Rautenschlein, Avian Metapneumovirus, Diseases of Poultry, pp.112-138, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00540087

K. Juhasz and A. J. Easton, Extensive sequence variation in the attachment (G) protein gene of avian pneumovirus: evidence for two distinct subgroups, J. Gen. Virol, vol.75, pp.2873-2880, 1994.

E. Lemaitre, C. Allee, A. Vabret, N. Eterradossi, and P. A. Brown, Single reaction, real time RT-PCR detection of all known avian and human metapneumoviruses, J. Virol. Methods, vol.251, pp.61-68, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02272315

R. Ling, S. Sinkovic, D. Toquin, O. Guionie, N. Eterradossi et al., Deletion of the SH gene from avian metapneumovirus has a greater impact on virus production and immunogenicity in turkeys than deletion of the G gene or M2-2 open reading frame, J. Gen. Virol, vol.89, pp.525-533, 2008.

H. Liu, E. Albina, P. Gil, C. Minet, and R. S. De-almeida, Two-plasmid system to increase the rescue efficiency of paramyxoviruses by reverse genetics: the example of rescuing Newcastle Disease Virus, Virology, vol.509, pp.42-51, 2017.

C. J. Naylor, P. A. Brown, N. Edworthy, R. Ling, R. C. Jones et al., Development of a reverse-genetics system for Avian pneumovirus demonstrates that the small hydrophobic (SH) and attachment (G) genes are not essential for virus viability, J. Gen. Virol, vol.85, pp.3219-3227, 2004.

B. S. Seal, Matrix protein gene nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence de-monstrate that the first U.S. avian pneumovirus isolate is distinct from European strains, Virus Res, pp.45-52, 1998.

D. Toquin, M. H. Bayon-auboyer, D. A. Senne, and N. Eterradossi, Lack of antigenic relationship between French and recent North American non-A/non-B turkey rhi-notracheitis viruses, Avian Dis, vol.44, pp.977-982, 2000.

D. Toquin, C. De-boisseson, V. Beven, D. A. Senne, and N. Eterradossi, Subgroup C avian metapneumovirus (MPV) and the recently isolated human MPV exhibit a common organization but have extensive sequence divergence in their putative SH and G genes, J. Gen. Virol, vol.84, pp.2169-2178, 2003.

D. Toquin, O. Guionie, C. Allee, Y. Morin, L. Le-coq et al., Compared suceptibility of SPF ducklings and SPF turkeys to the infection by avian metapneumoviruses belonging to the four subgroups, V. International Symposium on Avian Corona and Pneumoviruses and Complicating Pathogens VVB Laufersweiler Verlag, pp.70-76, 2006.

D. Toquin, O. Guionie, V. Jestin, F. Zwingelstein, C. Allee et al., European and American subgroup C isolates of avian metapneumovirus belong to different genetic lineages, Virus Genes, vol.32, pp.97-103, 2006.

Y. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Wei, and J. Li, A reverse genetics approach for the design of methyltransferase-defective live attenuated avian metapneumovirus vaccines, Methods Mol. Biol, vol.1404, pp.103-121, 2016.

, Références bibliographiques

A. A. Abdel-azeem, G. Franzo, A. Zotte, M. Drigo, E. Catelli et al.,

M. Cecchinato, First evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype A infection in turkeys in Egypt, Trop Anim Health Prod, vol.46, issue.6, pp.1093-1097, 2014.

M. Abraham, N. M. Arroyo-diaz, Z. Li, J. Zengel, K. Sakamoto et al., Role of Small Hydrophobic Protein of J Paramyxovirus in Virulence, J Virol, vol.92, 1920.

G. Ahmadian, P. Chambers, and A. J. Easton, Detection and characterization of proteins encoded by the second ORF of the M2 gene of pneumoviruses, J Gen Virol, vol.80, pp.2011-2016, 1999.

D. J. Alexander, R. E. Gough, P. J. Wyeth, S. A. Lister, and N. J. Chettle, Viruses associated with turkey rhinotracheitis in Great Britain, Vet Rec, vol.118, issue.8, pp.217-225, 1986.

A. N. Alkhalaf, L. A. Ward, R. N. Dearth, and Y. M. Saif, Pathogenicity, transmissibility, and tissue distribution of avian pneumovirus in turkey poults, Avian Dis, vol.46, issue.3, pp.650-659, 2002.

F. Almazán, M. L. Dediego, I. Sola, S. Zuñiga, J. L. Nieto-torres et al., Engineering a replication-competent, propagation-defective Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus as a vaccine candidate, mBio, vol.4, issue.5, p.650, 2013.

R. Alvarez, L. P. Jones, B. S. Seal, D. R. Kapczynski, and R. A. Tripp, Serological crossreactivity of members of the Metapneumovirus genus, Virus Res, vol.105, issue.1, pp.67-73, 2004.

R. Alvarez and B. S. Seal, Identification of a truncated nucleoprotein in avian metapneumovirus-infected cells encoded by a second AUG, in-frame to the full-length gene, Virol J, vol.2, p.31, 2005.

B. Andral and C. Louzis, La rhinotrachéite de la dinde en Bretagne, Bulletin d'information des laboratoires de Services Vétérinaires, vol.7, pp.33-43, 1982.

B. Andral, C. Louzis, E. Edlinger, J. A. Newman, D. Toquin et al., Respiratory disease (rhinotracheitis) in turkeys, Avian dis, vol.29, issue.1, pp.35-42, 1981.

B. Andral, M. Metz, D. Toquin, J. Lecoz, and J. Newman, Respiratory disease (rhinotracheitis) of turkeys in Brittany, France. III. Interaction of multiple infecting agents, Avian Dis, vol.29, issue.1, pp.233-243, 1985.

A. Asenjo, J. Mendieta, P. Gomez-puertas, and N. Villanueva, Residues in human respiratory syncytial virus P protein that are essential for its activity on RNA viral synthesis, Virus Res, vol.132, issue.1-2, pp.160-173, 2008.

Y. H. Aung, M. Liman, U. Neumann, and S. Rautenschlein, Reproducibility of swollen sinuses in broilers by experimental infection with avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B of turkey origin and their comparative pathogenesis, Avian Pathol, vol.37, issue.1, pp.65-74, 2008.

G. Avila-perez, A. Nogales, and V. Martin, Reverse Genetic Approaches for the Generation of Recombinant Zika Virus, 2018.

A. K. Banerjee, Transcription and replication of rhabdoviruses, Microbiol Rev, vol.51, issue.1, pp.66-87, 1987.

B. Mdel, R. , L. Harvey, A. Mendoza, D. Simms et al.,

A. Guerrero-plata, Impact and regulation of lambda interferon response in human metapneumovirus infection, J Virol, vol.89, issue.1, pp.730-742, 2015.

X. Bao, D. Kolli, T. Liu, Y. Shan, R. P. Garofalo et al., Human metapneumovirus small hydrophobic protein inhibits NF-kappaB transcriptional activity, J Virol, vol.82, issue.16, pp.8224-8229, 2008.

X. Bao, T. Liu, Y. Shan, K. Li, R. P. Garofalo et al., Human metapneumovirus glycoprotein G inhibits innate immune responses, PLoS Pathog, vol.4, issue.5, p.1000077, 2008.

S. Barik, The structure of the 5' terminal cap of the respiratory syncytial virus mRNA, J Gen Virol, vol.74, pp.485-490, 1993.

J. Barr and A. J. Easton, Characterisation of the interaction between the nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein of pneumonia virus of mice, Virus Res, vol.39, issue.2-3, pp.221-235, 1995.

C. Baxter-jones, G. P. Wilding, and M. Grant, Immunofluorescence as a potential diagnostic method for turkey rhinotracheitis, Vet Rec, vol.119, pp.600-601, 1986.

M. H. Bayon-auboyer, C. Arnauld, D. Toquin, and N. Eterradossi, Nucleotide sequences of the F, L and G protein genes of two non-A/non-B avian pneumoviruses (APV) reveal a novel APV subgroup, J Gen Virol, vol.81, pp.2723-2733, 2000.

M. H. Bayon-auboyer, V. Jestin, D. Toquin, M. Cherbonnel, and N. Eterradossi, Comparison of F-, G-and N-based RT-PCR protocols with conventional virological procedures for the detection and typing of turkey rhinotracheitis virus, Arch Virol, vol.144, issue.6, pp.1091-1109, 1999.

R. S. Bennett, R. Larue, D. Shaw, Q. Yu, K. V. Nagaraja et al., A wild goose metapneumovirus containing a large attachment glycoprotein is avirulent but immunoprotective in domestic turkeys, J Virol, vol.79, issue.23, pp.14834-14842, 2005.

R. S. Bennett, B. Mccomb, H. J. Shin, M. K. Njenga, K. V. Nagaraja et al., Detection of avian pneumovirus in wild Canada (Branta canadensis) and blue-winged teal (Anas discors) geese, Avian Dis, vol.46, issue.4, pp.1025-1029, 2002.

R. S. Bennett, J. Nezworski, B. T. Velayudhan, K. V. Nagaraja, D. H. Zeman et al., Evidence of avian pneumovirus spread beyond Minnesota among wild and domestic birds in central North America, Avian Dis, vol.48, issue.4, pp.902-908, 2004.

S. Biacchesi, Q. N. Pham, M. H. Skiadopoulos, B. R. Murphy, P. L. Collins et al., Infection of nonhuman primates with recombinant human metapneumovirus lacking the SH, G, or M2-2 protein categorizes each as a nonessential accessory protein and identifies vaccine candidates, J Virol, vol.79, pp.12608-12613, 2005.

S. Biacchesi, M. H. Skiadopoulos, L. Yang, E. W. Lamirande, K. C. Tran et al., Recombinant human Metapneumovirus lacking the small hydrophobic SH and/or attachment G glycoprotein: deletion of G yields a promising vaccine candidate, J Virol, vol.78, issue.23, pp.12877-12887, 2004.

D. Blocquel, J. M. Bourhis, J. F. Éléouët, D. Gerlier, J. Habchi et al., Transcription et réplication des Mononegavirales : une machine moléculaire originale, Virologie, vol.16, pp.225-257, 2012.

T. Briese, J. C. De-la-torre, A. Lewis, H. Ludwig, and W. I. Lipkin, Borna disease virus, a negative-strand RNA virus, transcribes in the nucleus of infected cells, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.89, issue.23, pp.11486-11489, 1992.

P. Britton, P. Green, S. Kottier, K. L. Mawditt, Z. Penzes et al., Expression of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase in avian and mammalian cells by a recombinant fowlpox virus, J Gen Virol, vol.77, pp.963-967, 1996.

P. A. Brown, C. Allee, C. Courtillon, N. Szerman, E. Lemaitre et al., Host specificity of avian metapneumoviruses, Avian Pathol, pp.1-8, 2019.

P. A. Brown, M. Bonci, E. Ricchizzi, R. C. Jones, and C. J. Naylor, Identification of two regions within the subtype A avian metapneumovirus fusion protein (amino acids 211-310 and 336-479) recognized by neutralizing antibodies, Virus Res, vol.146, issue.1-2, pp.13-18, 2009.

P. A. Brown and N. Eterradossi, Avian Metapneumovirus, Avian Virology, 2018.

P. A. Brown, E. Lemaitre, F. X. Briand, C. Courtillon, O. Guionie et al., Molecular Comparisons of Full Length Metapneumovirus (MPV) Genomes, Including Newly Determined French AMPV-C and -D Isolates, Further Supports Possible Subclassification within the MPV Genus, PLoS One, vol.9, issue.7, p.102740, 2014.

P. A. Brown, C. Lupini, E. Catelli, J. Clubbe, E. Ricchizzi et al., A single polymerase (L) mutation in avian metapneumovirus increased virulence and partially maintained virus viability at an elevated temperature, J Gen Virol, vol.92, pp.346-354, 2011.

J. Brugère-picoux and S. Amer, Manuel de pathologie aviaire, 1992.

U. J. Buchholz, S. Biacchesi, Q. N. Pham, K. C. Tran, L. Yang et al., Deletion of M2 gene open reading frames 1 and 2 of human metapneumovirus: effects on RNA synthesis, attenuation, and immunogenicity, J Virol, vol.79, issue.11, pp.6588-6597, 2005.

U. J. Buchholz, S. Finke, and K. K. Conzelmann, Generation of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) from cDNA: BRSV NS2 is not essential for virus replication in tissue culture, and the human RSV leader region acts as a functional BRSV genome promoter, J Virol, vol.73, issue.1, pp.251-259, 1999.

A. Bukreyev, B. R. Murphy, and P. L. Collins, Respiratory syncytial virus can tolerate an intergenic sequence of at least 160 nucleotides with little effect on transcription or replication in vitro and in vivo, J Virol, vol.74, issue.23, pp.11017-11026, 2000.

A. Bukreyev, S. S. Whitehead, B. R. Murphy, and P. L. Collins, Recombinant respiratory syncytial virus from which the entire SH gene has been deleted grows efficiently in cell culture and exhibits site-specific attenuation in the respiratory tract of the mouse, J Virol, vol.71, issue.12, pp.8973-8982, 1997.

S. B. Buys and J. H. Du-prees, A preliminary report on the isolation of a virus causing sinusitis in turkeys in South Africa and attempts to attenuate the virus, Turkeys, vol.28, p.36, 1980.

S. B. Buys, J. H. Du-preez, and H. J. Els, Swollen head syndrome in chickens: a preliminary report on the isolation of a possible aetiological agent, J S Afr Vet Assoc, vol.60, issue.4, pp.221-222, 1989.

H. F. Cadman, P. J. Kelly, R. Zhou, F. Davelaar, and P. R. Mason, A serosurvey using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against poultry pathogens in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from Zimbabwe, Avian Dis, vol.38, issue.3, pp.621-625, 1994.

H. Cai, Y. Zhang, M. Lu, X. Liang, R. Jennings et al., Phosphorylation of Human Metapneumovirus M2-1 Protein Upregulates Viral Replication and Pathogenesis, J Virol, vol.90, issue.16, pp.7323-7338, 2016.

H. Cai, Y. Zhang, Y. Ma, J. Sun, X. Liang et al., Zinc binding activity of human metapneumovirus M2-1 protein is indispensable for viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo, J Virol, vol.89, issue.12, pp.6391-6405, 2015.

P. Calain and L. Roux, The rule of six, a basic feature for efficient replication of Sendai virus defective interfering RNA, J Virol, vol.67, issue.8, pp.4822-4830, 1993.

S. D. Carter, K. C. Dent, E. Atkins, T. L. Foster, M. Verow et al., Direct visualization of the small hydrophobic protein of human respiratory syncytial virus reveals the structural basis for membrane permeability, FEBS Lett, vol.584, issue.13, pp.2786-2790, 2010.

N. Castagne, A. Barbier, J. Bernard, H. Rezaei, J. C. Huet et al., Biochemical characterization of the respiratory syncytial virus P-P and P-N protein complexes and localization of the P protein oligomerization domain, J Gen Virol, vol.85, pp.1643-1653, 2004.

E. Catelli, M. Cecchinato, C. E. Savage, R. C. Jones, and C. J. Naylor, Demonstration of loss of attenuation and extended field persistence of a live avian metapneumovirus vaccine, Vaccine, vol.24, pp.6476-6482, 2006.

D. Cavanagh, Innovation and discovery: the application of nucleic acid-based technology to avian virus detection and characterization, Avian Pathol, vol.30, issue.6, pp.581-598, 2001.

D. Cavanagh and T. Barrett, Pneumovirus-like characteristics of the mRNA and proteins of turkey rhinotracheitis virus, Virus Res, vol.11, issue.3, pp.241-256, 1988.

M. Cecchinato, E. Catelli, C. Lupini, E. Ricchizzi, S. Prosperi et al., Reversion to virulence of a subtype B avian metapneumovirus vaccine: is it time for regulators to require availability of vaccine progenitors?, Vaccine, vol.32, issue.36, pp.4660-4664, 2014.

B. Cevik, D. E. Holmes, E. Vrotsos, J. A. Feller, S. Smallwood et al., The phosphoprotein (P) and L binding sites reside in the N-terminus of the L subunit of the measles virus RNA polymerase, Virology, vol.327, issue.2, pp.297-306, 2004.

R. M. Cha, M. Khatri, and J. M. Sharma, B-cell infiltration in the respiratory mucosa of turkeys exposed to subtype C avian metapneumovirus, Avian Dis, vol.51, issue.3, pp.764-770, 2007.

R. M. Cha, Q. Yu, and L. Zsak, The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys, Virol J, vol.10, p.38, 2013.

J. L. Chacon, P. E. Brandao, M. Buim, L. Villarreal, and A. J. Ferreira, Detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and molecular characterization of subtype B avian metapneumovirus isolated in Brazil, Avian Pathol, vol.36, issue.5, pp.383-387, 2007.

P. Chambers, C. R. Pringle, and A. J. Easton, Heptad repeat sequences are located adjacent to hydrophobic regions in several types of virus fusion glycoproteins, J Gen Virol, vol.71, pp.3075-3080, 1990.

R. Chandrika, S. M. Horikami, S. Smallwood, and S. A. Moyer, Mutations in conserved domain I of the Sendai virus L polymerase protein uncouple transcription and replication, Virology, vol.213, issue.2, pp.352-363, 1995.

A. Chang, C. Masante, U. J. Buchholz, and R. E. Dutch, Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) binding and infection are mediated by interactions between the HMPV fusion protein and heparan sulfate, J Virol, vol.86, issue.6, pp.3230-3243, 2012.

M. D. Chen, M. Vazquez, L. Buonocore, and J. S. Kahn, Conservation of the respiratory syncytial virus SH gene, J Infect Dis, vol.182, issue.4, pp.1228-1233, 2000.

S. Chen, J. A. Short, D. F. Young, M. J. Killip, M. Schneider et al., Heterocellular induction of interferon by negative-sense RNA viruses, Virology, vol.407, issue.2, pp.247-255, 2010.

Y. Chen, X. Deng, J. Deng, J. Zhou, Y. Ren et al.,

X. Bao, Functional motifs responsible for human metapneumovirus M2-2-mediated innate immune evasion, Virology, vol.499, pp.361-368, 2016.

S. Chiang, A. M. Dar, S. M. Goyal, M. A. Sheikh, J. C. Pedersen et al., A modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of avian pneumovirus antibodies, J Vet Diagn Invest, vol.12, issue.4, pp.381-384, 2000.

S. B. Cleveland, J. Davies, and M. A. Mcclure, A bioinformatics approach to the structure, function, and evolution of the nucleoprotein of the order mononegavirales, PLoS One, vol.6, issue.5, p.19275, 2011.

J. Clubbe and C. J. Naylor, Avian metapneumovirus M2:2 protein inhibits replication in Vero cells: modification facilitates live vaccine development, Vaccine, vol.29, issue.51, pp.9493-9498, 2011.

M. S. Collins and R. E. Gough, Characterization of a virus associated with turkey rhinotracheitis, J Gen Virol, vol.69, pp.909-916, 1988.

M. S. Collins, R. E. Gough, S. A. Lister, N. Chettle, and R. Eddy, Further characterisation of a virus associated with turkey rhinotracheitis, Vet Rec, vol.119, issue.24, p.606, 1986.

P. L. Collins, M. G. Hill, E. Camargo, H. Grosfeld, R. M. Chanock et al., Production of infectious human respiratory syncytial virus from cloned cDNA confirms an essential role for the transcription elongation factor from the 5' proximal open reading frame of the M2 mRNA in gene expression and provides a capability for vaccine development, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.92, issue.25, pp.11563-11567, 1995.

P. L. Collins and R. A. Karron, Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Metapneumovirus, Fields Virology, vol.6, pp.1086-1123, 2013.

P. L. Collins, M. A. Mink, and D. S. Stec, Rescue of synthetic analogs of respiratory syncytial virus genomic RNA and effect of truncations and mutations on the expression of a foreign reporter gene, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.88, issue.21, pp.9663-9667, 1991.

P. L. Collins and G. W. Wertz, cDNA cloning and transcriptional mapping of nine polyadenylylated RNAs encoded by the genome of human respiratory syncytial virus, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.80, issue.11, pp.3208-3212, 1983.

K. K. Conzelmann and M. Schnell, Rescue of synthetic genomic RNA analogs of rabies virus by plasmid-encoded proteins, J Virol, vol.68, issue.2, pp.713-719, 1994.

J. K. Cook, Avian pneumovirus infections of turkeys and chickens, Vet J, vol.160, issue.2, pp.118-125, 2000.

J. K. Cook, Avian rhinotracheitis, Rev Sci Tech, vol.19, issue.2, pp.602-613, 2000.

J. K. Cook and D. Cavanagh, Detection and differentiation of avian pneumoviruses (metapneumoviruses), Avian Pathol, vol.31, issue.2, pp.117-132, 2002.

J. K. Cook, M. B. Huggins, S. J. Orbell, and D. A. Senne, Preliminary antigenic characterization of an avian pneumovirus isolated from commercial turkeys in Colorado, USA, Avian Pathology, vol.28, issue.6, pp.607-617, 1999.

J. K. Cook, M. B. Huggins, M. A. Woods, S. J. Orbell, and A. P. Mockett, Protection provided by a commercially available vaccine against different strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus, Vet Rec, vol.136, issue.15, pp.392-393, 1995.

J. K. Cook, M. M. Ellis, and M. B. Huggins, The pathogenesis of Turkey rhinotracheistis virus in turkey poults inoculated with the virus alone or together with two strains of bacteria, Avian Pathology, vol.20, pp.155-156, 1991.

J. K. Cook, F. Orthel, S. Orbell, M. A. Woods, and M. B. Huggins, An experimental turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) infection in breeding turkeys and the prevention of its clinical effects using live-attenuated and inactivated TRT vaccines, Avian Pathology, vol.25, issue.2, pp.231-243, 1996.

E. C. Coronel, T. Takimoto, K. G. Murti, N. Varich, and A. Portner, Nucleocapsid incorporation into parainfluenza virus is regulated by specific interaction with matrix protein, J Virol, vol.75, issue.3, pp.1117-1123, 2001.

V. M. Cowton, D. R. Mcgivern, and R. Fearns, Unravelling the complexities of respiratory syncytial virus RNA synthesis, J Gen Virol, vol.87, pp.1805-1821, 2006.

R. G. Cox, S. B. Livesay, M. Johnson, M. D. Ohi, and J. V. Williams, The human metapneumovirus fusion protein mediates entry via an interaction with RGD-binding integrins, J Virol, vol.86, issue.22, pp.12148-12160, 2012.

B. Cubitt, J. C. De-la, and T. , Borna disease virus (BDV), a nonsegmented RNA virus, replicates in the nuclei of infected cells where infectious BDV ribonucleoproteins are present, J Virol, vol.68, issue.3, pp.1371-1381, 1994.

M. A. Dani, E. L. Durigon, and C. W. Arns, Molecular characterization of Brazilian avian pneumovirus isolates: comparison between immunochemiluminescent Southern blot and nested PCR, J Virol Methods, vol.79, issue.2, pp.237-241, 1999.

M. De-graaf, S. Herfst, J. Aarbiou, P. C. Burgers, F. Zaaraoui-boutahar et al., Small hydrophobic protein of human metapneumovirus does not affect virus replication and host gene expression in vitro, PLoS One, vol.8, issue.3, p.58572, 2013.

M. De-graaf, S. Herfst, E. J. Schrauwen, Y. Choi, B. G. Van-den-hoogen et al., Specificity and functional interaction of the polymerase complex proteins of human and avian metapneumoviruses, J Gen Virol, vol.89, pp.975-983, 2008.

M. De-graaf, A. D. Osterhaus, R. A. Fouchier, and E. C. Holmes, Evolutionary dynamics of human and avian metapneumoviruses, J Gen Virol, vol.89, pp.2933-2942, 2008.

M. De-graaf, E. J. Schrauwen, S. Herfst, G. Van-amerongen, A. D. Osterhaus et al., Fusion protein is the main determinant of metapneumovirus host tropism, J Gen Virol, 2009.

Q. Deng, Y. Weng, W. Lu, A. Demers, M. Song et al.,

F. Li, Topology and cellular localization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus, Virus Res, vol.160, issue.1-2, pp.102-107, 2011.

A. Derdowski, T. R. Peters, N. Glover, R. Qian, T. J. Utley et al., Human metapneumovirus nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein interact and provide the minimal requirements for inclusion body formation, J Gen Virol, vol.89, pp.2698-2708, 2008.

V. Dolganiuc, L. Mcginnes, E. J. Luna, and T. G. Morrison, Role of the cytoplasmic domain of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein in association with lipid rafts, J Virol, vol.77, issue.24, pp.12968-12979, 2003.

R. E. Dutch, T. S. Jardetzky, and R. A. Lamb, Virus membrane fusion proteins: biological machines that undergo a metamorphosis, Biosci Rep, vol.20, issue.6, pp.597-612, 2000.

A. J. Easton, J. B. Domachowske, and H. F. Rosenberg, Animal Pneumoviruses: Molecular Genetics and Pathogenesis, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.17, issue.2, pp.390-412, 2004.

F. El-najjar, N. Cifuentes-munoz, and J. Chen, Human metapneumovirus Induces Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton for Direct Cell-to-Cell Spread, vol.12, 2016.

R. M. Elliott, G. Blakqori, I. C. Van-knippenberg, E. Koudriakova, P. Li et al.,

. Szemiel, Establishment of a reverse genetics system for Schmallenberg virus, a newly emerged orthobunyavirus in Europe, J Gen Virol, vol.94, pp.851-859, 2013.

L. M. Epstein and J. G. Gall, Self-cleaving transcripts of satellite DNA from the newt, Cell, vol.48, issue.3, pp.535-543, 1987.

N. Eterradossi, D. Toquin, M. Guittet, and G. Bennejean, Discrepancies in turkey rhinotracheitis ELISA results using different antigens, Vet Rec, vol.131, issue.24, pp.563-564, 1992.

N. Eterradossi, D. Toquin, M. Guittet, and G. Bennejean, Evaluation of different turkey rhinotracheitis viruses used as antigens for serological testing following live vaccination and challenge, Veterinary Medicine, vol.42, issue.3, pp.175-186, 1995.

G. Fabris and P. N. , Rinotracheite infettiva del tacchino: osservazioni sul campo ed indagini di laboratorio, Zootecnica International I, issue.6, pp.36-40, 1990.

R. Fearns and P. L. Collins, Role of the M2-1 transcription antitermination protein of respiratory syncytial virus in sequential transcription, J Virol, vol.73, issue.7, pp.5852-5864, 1999.

R. Fearns, M. E. Peeples, and P. L. Collins, Mapping the transcription and replication promoters of respiratory syncytial virus, J Virol, vol.76, issue.4, pp.1663-1672, 2002.

R. Fearns and R. K. Plemper, Polymerase of Paramyxoviruses and Pneumovirus, Virus research, vol.234, pp.87-102, 2017.

F. Ferron, S. Longhi, B. Henrissat, and B. Canard, Viral RNA-polymerases --a predicted 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase domain shared by all Mononegavirales, Trends Biochem Sci, vol.27, issue.5, pp.222-224, 2002.

S. Firquet, S. Beaujard, P. E. Lobert, F. Sane, D. Caloone et al., Viruses contained in droplets applied on warmed surface are rapidly inactivated, Microbes Environ, vol.29, issue.4, pp.408-412, 2014.

S. Firquet, S. Beaujard, P. E. Lobert, F. Sane, D. Caloone et al., Survival of Enveloped and Non-Enveloped Viruses on Inanimate Surfaces, Microbes Environ, vol.30, issue.2, pp.140-144, 2015.

G. Franzo, C. M. Tucciarone, M. Enache, V. Bejan, G. Ramon et al.,

. Cecchinato, First Report of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype B Field Strain in a Romanian Broiler Flock During an Outbreak of Respiratory Disease, Avian Dis, vol.61, issue.2, pp.250-254, 2017.

F. Freymouth, A. Vabret, L. Legrand, N. Eterradossi, F. Lafay-delaire et al.,

. Guillois, Presence of the new human metapneumovirus in French children with bronchiolitis, Pediatr Infect Dis J, vol.22, issue.1, pp.92-94, 2003.

S. Fuentes, K. C. Tran, P. Luthra, M. N. Teng, and B. He, Function of the respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic protein, J Virol, vol.81, issue.15, pp.8361-8366, 2007.

T. R. Fuerst, E. G. Niles, F. W. Studier, and B. Moss, Eukaryotic transient-expression system based on recombinant vaccinia virus that synthesizes bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.83, issue.21, pp.8122-8126, 1986.

S. Gan, E. Tan, X. Lin, D. Yu, J. Wang et al., The Small Hydrophobic Protein of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Forms Pentameric Ion Channels, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.287, issue.29, pp.24671-24689, 2012.

K. Ganapathy, P. Cargill, E. Montiel, and R. C. Jones, Interaction between live avian pneumovirus and Newcastle disease virus vaccines in specific pathogen free chickens, Avian Pathol, vol.34, issue.4, pp.297-302, 2005.

B. García-barreno, T. Delgado, and J. A. Melero, Identification of protein regions involved in the interaction of human respiratory syncytial virus phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein: significance for nucleocapsid assembly and formation of cytoplasmic inclusions, Journal of Virology, vol.70, issue.2, pp.801-808, 1996.

J. Garcia, B. Garcia-barreno, A. Vivo, and J. A. Melero, Cytoplasmic inclusions of respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells: formation of inclusion bodies in transfected cells that coexpress the nucleoprotein, the phosphoprotein, and the 22K protein, Virology, vol.195, issue.1, pp.243-247, 1993.

S. M. Gharaibeh and G. R. Algharaibeh, Serological and molecular detection of avian pneumovirus in chickens with respiratory disease in Jordan, Poult Sci, vol.86, issue.8, pp.1677-1681, 2007.

R. Ghildyal, J. Mills, M. Murray, N. Vardaxis, and J. Meanger, Respiratory syncytial virus matrix protein associates with nucleocapsids in infected cells, J Gen Virol, vol.83, pp.753-757, 2002.

P. Giraud, G. Bennejean, M. Guittet, and D. Toquin, Turkey rhinotracheitis in France: preliminary investigations on a ciliostatic virus, Vet Rec, vol.119, issue.24, pp.606-607, 1986.

P. Giraud, F. X. Le-gros, M. Guittet, J. F. Bouquet, D. Toquin et al., Turkey rhinotracheitis: isolation of a viral agent and first trials with experimental inactivated or attenuated vaccines, Thirty-sixth Western Poultry Disease Conference, 1987.

P. Giraud, D. Toquin, J. P. Picault, M. Guittet, and G. Bennejean, Le sérodiagnostic de l'infection par le virus de la rhinotrachéite de la dinde, la poule et la pintade : la séroneutralisation béta sur cellules MA 104, Bull. Lab. Vet, vol.27, pp.71-76, 1987.

L. Gonzalez-reyes, M. B. Ruiz-arguello, B. Garcia-barreno, L. Calder, J. A. Lopez et al.,

J. A. Melero, Cleavage of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein at two distinct sites is required for activation of membrane fusion, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.98, issue.17, pp.9859-9864, 2001.

R. E. Gough, M. S. Collins, W. J. Cox, and N. J. Chettle, Experimental infection of turkeys, chickens, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, pheasants and pigeons with turkey rhinotracheitis virus, Vet Rec, vol.123, issue.2, pp.58-59, 1988.

R. E. Gough, S. E. Drury, E. Aldous, and P. W. Laing, Isolation and identification of avian pneumovirus from pheasants, Vet Rec, vol.149, issue.10, p.312, 2001.

R. E. Gough and R. C. Jones, Avian metapneumovirus. In: Isolation and identification of Avian Pathogens, pp.142-145, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00540087

D. Govindarajan, U. J. Buchholz, and S. K. Samal, Recovery of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C from cDNA: cross-recognition of avian and human metapneumovirus support proteins, J Virol, vol.80, issue.12, pp.5790-5797, 2006.

D. Govindarajan, S. H. Kim, and S. K. Samal, Contribution of the attachment G glycoprotein to pathogenicity and immunogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C, Avian Dis, vol.54, issue.1, pp.59-66, 2010.

D. Govindarajan, A. S. Yunus, and S. K. Samal, Complete sequence of the G glycoprotein gene of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C and identification of a divergent domain in the predicted protein, J Gen Virol, vol.85, pp.3671-3675, 2004.

S. M. Goyal, S. J. Chiang, A. M. Dar, K. V. Nagaraja, D. P. Shaw et al., Isolation of avian pneumovirus from an outbreak of respiratory illness in Minnesota turkeys, J Vet Diagn Invest, vol.12, issue.2, pp.166-168, 2000.

S. M. Goyal, D. Lauer, K. Friendshuh, and D. A. Halvorson, Seroprevalence of avian pneumovirus in Minnesota turkeys, Avian Dis, vol.47, issue.3, pp.700-706, 2003.

M. Grant, C. Baxter-jones, and G. P. Wilding, An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the serodiagnosis of turkey rhinotracheitis infection, Vet Rec, vol.120, issue.12, pp.279-280, 1987.

O. Guionie, D. Toquin, E. Sellal, S. Bouley, F. Zwingelstein et al., Laboratory evaluation of a quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay for the detection and identification of the four subgroups of avian metapneumovirus, J Virol Methods, vol.139, issue.2, pp.150-158, 2007.

H. M. Hafez, Schriftreihe der Deutschen Veterinärmedizinischen Gesellschaft -Fachgruppe Geflügelkrankheiten, 34. und 35, pp.107-120, 1987.

H. M. Hafez, The role of pneumovirus in swollen head syndrome of chickens: review, Arch.Geflugelkde, issue.57, pp.181-185, 1993.

M. Hamaguchi, T. Yoshida, K. Nishikawa, H. Naruse, and Y. Nagai, Transcriptive complex of Newcastle disease virus. I. Both L and P proteins are required to constitute an active complex, Virology, vol.128, issue.1, pp.105-117, 1983.

D. C. Hammond and J. A. Lesnaw, Functional analysis of hypomethylation variants of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus, Virology, vol.160, issue.2, pp.330-335, 1987.

A. K. Hastings, K. R. Amato, S. C. Wen, L. S. Peterson, and J. V. Williams, Human metapneumovirus small hydrophobic (SH) protein downregulates type I IFN pathway signaling by affecting STAT1 expression and phosphorylation, Virology, vol.494, pp.248-256, 2016.

B. He, G. P. Leser, R. G. Paterson, and R. A. Lamb, The paramyxovirus SV5 small hydrophobic (SH) protein is not essential for virus growth in tissue culture cells, Virology, vol.250, issue.1, pp.30-40, 1998.

U. Heffels-redman, U. Neumann, S. Branne, J. K. Cook, and J. Pruter, Serological evidence for susceptibility of sea gulls to avian pneumovirus (APV) infection, International Symposium on Infectious Bronchitis and Pneumovirus Infections in Poultry, 1998.

U. Hengst and P. Kiefer, Domains of human respiratory syncytial virus P protein essential for homodimerization and for binding to N and NS1 protein, Virus Genes, vol.20, issue.3, pp.221-225, 2000.

S. Herfst, M. De-graaf, J. H. Schickli, R. S. Tang, J. Kaur et al., Recovery of human metapneumovirus genetic lineages a and B from cloned cDNA, J Virol, vol.78, issue.15, pp.8264-8270, 2004.

S. M. Horikami, J. Curran, D. Kolakofsky, and S. A. Moyer, Complexes of Sendai virus NP-P and P-L proteins are required for defective interfering particle genome replication in vitro, J Virol, vol.66, issue.8, pp.4901-4908, 1992.

D. M. Hunt, R. Mehta, and K. L. Hutchinson, The L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus modulates the response of the polyadenylic acid polymerase to S-adenosylhomocysteine, J Gen Virol, vol.69, pp.2555-2561, 1988.

C. J. Hutchins, P. D. Rathjen, A. C. Forster, and R. H. Symons, Self-cleavage of plus and minus RNA transcripts of avocado sunblotch viroid, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.14, issue.9, pp.3627-3640, 1986.

K. Inoue, Y. Shoji, I. Kurane, T. Iijima, T. Sakai et al., An improved method for recovering rabies virus from cloned cDNA, J Virol Methods, vol.107, issue.2, pp.229-236, 2003.

F. Iseni, F. Baudin, D. Blondel, and R. W. Ruigrok, Structure of the RNA inside the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid, RNA, vol.6, issue.2, pp.270-281, 2000.

J. Ivancic-jelecki, A. Slovic, S. Ljubin-sternak, G. Galinovic, and D. Forcic, Variability analysis and inter-genotype comparison of human respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic gene, Virol J, vol.15, issue.1, p.109, 2018.

C. M. Jardine, E. J. Parmley, T. Buchanan, L. Nituch, and D. Ojkic, Avian metapneumovirus subtype C in Wild Waterfowl in Ontario, Canada, Transbound Emerg Dis, vol.65, issue.4, pp.1098-1102, 2018.

F. E. Jirjis, S. L. Noll, D. A. Halvorson, K. V. Nagaraja, E. L. Townsend et al.,

. Shaw, Avian pneumovirus infection in Minnesota turkeys: experimental reproduction of the disease, Avian Dis, vol.44, issue.1, pp.222-226, 2000.

F. F. Jirjis, S. L. Noll, D. A. Halvorson, K. V. Nagaraja, F. Martin et al., Effects of bacterial coinfection on the pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys, Avian Dis, vol.48, issue.1, pp.34-49, 2004.

R. C. Jones, Avian pneumovirus infection: Questions still unanswered, Avian Pathol, vol.25, issue.4, pp.639-648, 1996.

R. C. Jones, W. B. Pneumovirinae, R. C. Saunders-jones, C. Baxter-jones, C. E. Savage et al., Experimental infection of chickens with a ciliostatic agent isolated from turkeys with rhinotracheitis, Vet Rec, vol.120, issue.13, pp.301-302, 1987.

R. C. Jones, C. Baxter-jones, G. P. Wilding, and D. F. Kelly, Demonstration of a candidate virus for turkey rhinotracheitis in experimentally inoculated turkeys, Vet Rec, vol.119, issue.24, pp.599-600, 1986.

R. C. Jones, C. J. Naylor, A. Afaleq, K. J. Worthington, and R. Jones, Effect of cyclophosphamide immunosuppression on the immunity of turkeys to viral rhinotracheitis, Res Vet Sci, vol.53, issue.1, pp.38-41, 1992.

R. C. Jones, C. J. Naylor, J. M. Bradbury, C. E. Savage, K. Worthington et al., Isolation of a turkey rhinotracheitis-like virus from broiler breeder chickens in England, Vet Rec, vol.129, issue.23, pp.509-510, 1991.

R. C. Jones and S. Rautenschlein, Avian Metapneumovirus. Diseases of Poultry, vol.13, pp.112-138, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00540087

R. C. Jones, R. A. Williams, C. Baxter-jones, C. E. Savage, and G. P. Wilding, , 1988.

, Experimental infection of laying turkeys with rhinotracheitis virus: distribution of virus in the tissues and serological response, Avian Pathol, vol.17, issue.4, pp.841-850

K. Juhasz and A. J. Easton, Extensive sequence variation in the attachment (G) protein gene of avian pneumovirus: evidence for two distinct subgroups, J Gen Virol, vol.75, pp.2873-2880, 1994.

P. E. Kaptur, R. B. Rhodes, and D. S. Lyles, Sequences of the vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein involved in binding to nucleocapsids, J Virol, vol.65, issue.3, pp.1057-1065, 1991.

A. Karger, U. Schmidt, and U. J. Buchholz, Recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial virus with deletions of the G or SH genes: G and F proteins bind heparin, J Gen Virol, vol.82, pp.631-640, 2001.

R. A. Karron, D. A. Buonagurio, A. F. Georgiu, S. S. Whitehead, J. E. Adamus et al.,

M. S. Sidhu, Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) SH and G proteins are not essential for viral replication in vitro : Clinical evaluation and molecular characterization of a cold-passaged, attenuated RSV subgroup B mutant, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.94, issue.25, pp.13961-13966, 1997.

S. K. Khattar, A. S. Yunus, and S. K. Samal, Mapping the domains on the phosphoprotein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus required for N-P and P-L interactions using a minigenome system, J Gen Virol, vol.82, pp.775-779, 2001.

R. S. Khehra and R. C. Jones, In vitro and in vivo studies on the pathogenicity of avian pneumovirus for the chicken oviduct, Avian Pathology, vol.28, issue.3, pp.257-262, 1999.

R. S. Khehra, R. C. Jones, and J. M. Bradbury, Dual infection of turkey poults with avian pneumovirus and Mycoplasma synoviae, Avian Pathol, vol.28, issue.4, pp.401-404, 1999.

S. H. Kleven, Report of the Committee. Transmissible Diseases of Poultry and Other Avian Species, Proceedings of the U.S. Animal Health Association 101st Annual Meeting, pp.486-491, 1997.

K. Klumpp, R. W. Ruigrok, and F. Baudin, Roles of the influenza virus polymerase and nucleoprotein in forming a functional RNP structure, The EMBO Journal, vol.16, issue.6, pp.1248-1257, 1997.

B. W. Kong, L. K. Foster, and D. N. Foster, Species-specific deletion of the viral attachment glycoprotein of avian metapneumovirus, Virus Res, vol.132, issue.1-2, pp.114-121, 2008.

G. R. Kovacs, C. L. Parks, N. Vasilakis, and S. A. Udem, Enhanced genetic rescue of negative-strand RNA viruses: use of an MVA-T7 RNA polymerase vector and DNA replication inhibitors, J Virol Methods, vol.111, issue.1, pp.29-36, 2003.

C. Krempl, B. R. Murphy, and P. L. Collins, Recombinant respiratory syncytial virus with the G and F genes shifted to the promoter-proximal positions, J Virol, vol.76, issue.23, pp.11931-11942, 2002.

L. Kuo, R. Fearns, and P. L. Collins, The structurally diverse intergenic regions of respiratory syncytial virus do not modulate sequential transcription by a dicistronic minigenome, J Virol, vol.70, issue.9, pp.6143-6150, 1996.

J. S. Kwon, H. J. Lee, S. H. Jeong, J. Y. Park, Y. H. Hong et al.,

C. S. Song, Isolation and characterization of avian metapneumovirus from chickens in Korea, J Vet Sci, vol.11, issue.1, pp.59-66, 2010.

A. Laconi, J. Clubbe, M. Falchieri, C. Lupini, M. Cecchinato et al., A comparison of AMPV subtypes A and B full genomes, gene transcripts and proteins led to reversegenetics systems rescuing both subtypes, J Gen Virol, vol.97, issue.6, pp.1324-1332, 2016.

W. S. Lai, E. Carballo, J. R. Strum, E. A. Kennington, R. S. Phillips et al., Evidence that Tristetraprolin Binds to AU-Rich Elements and Promotes the Deadenylation and Destabilization of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha mRNA, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.19, issue.6, pp.4311-4323, 1999.

L. Gros, F. X. Magand, G. Giraud, P. Bouquet, J. F. Guittet et al., Turkey Rhinotracheitis: Field results of the vaccination of day old turkey with a live attenuated virus, Proceedings of the thirty-seventh western poultry disease conference, 1988.

L. Mercier, P. , Y. Jacob, K. Tanner, and N. Tordo, A Novel Expression Cassette of Lyssavirus Shows that the Distantly Related Mokola Virus Can Rescue a Defective Rabies Virus Genome, Journal of Virology, vol.76, issue.4, pp.2024-2027, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00174707

E. Lee, M. S. Song, J. Y. Shin, Y. M. Lee, C. J. Kim et al., Genetic characterization of avian metapneumovirus subtype C isolated from pheasants in a live bird market, Virus Res, vol.128, issue.1-2, pp.18-25, 2007.

E. Lemaitre, C. Allee, A. Vabret, N. Eterradossi, and P. A. Brown, Single reaction, real time RT-PCR detection of all known avian and human metapneumoviruses, J Virol Methods, vol.251, pp.61-68, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02272315

J. Lenard, Negative-strand virus M and retrovirus MA proteins: all in a family?, Virology, vol.216, issue.2, pp.289-298, 1996.

C. Leyrat, G. C. Paesen, J. Charleston, M. Renner, and J. M. Grimes, Structural insights into the human metapneumovirus glycoprotein ectodomain, J Virol, vol.88, pp.11611-11616, 2014.

C. Leyrat, M. Renner, K. Harlos, and J. M. Grimes, Solution and crystallographic structures of the central region of the phosphoprotein from human metapneumovirus, PLoS One, vol.8, issue.11, p.80371, 2013.

C. Leyrat, M. Renner, K. Harlos, J. T. Huiskonen, and J. M. Grimes, Drastic changes in conformational dynamics of the antiterminator M2-1 regulate transcription efficiency in Pneumovirinae, Elife, vol.3, p.2674, 2014.

C. Leyrat, M. Renner, K. Harlos, J. T. Huiskonen, and J. M. Grimes, Structure and selfassembly of the calcium binding matrix protein of human metapneumovirus, Structure, vol.22, issue.1, pp.136-148, 2014.

D. Li, D. A. Jans, P. G. Bardin, J. Meanger, J. Mills et al., Association of Respiratory Syncytial Virus M Protein with Viral Nucleocapsids Is Mediated by the M2-1 Protein, Journal of Virology, vol.82, issue.17, pp.8863-8870, 2008.

Z. Li, J. Xu, J. Patel, S. Fuentes, Y. Lin et al.,

B. He, Function of the small hydrophobic protein of J paramyxovirus, J Virol, vol.85, issue.1, pp.32-42, 2011.

M. Liman and S. Rautenschlein, Induction of local and systemic immune reactions following infection of turkeys with avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtypes A and B, Vet Immunol Immunopathol, vol.115, issue.3-4, pp.273-285, 2007.

R. Ling, P. J. Davis, Q. Yu, C. M. Wood, C. R. Pringle et al., Sequence and in vitro expression of the phosphoprotein gene of avian pneumovirus, Virus Res, vol.36, issue.2-3, pp.247-257, 1995.

R. Ling, A. J. Easton, and C. R. Pringle, Sequence analysis of the 22K, SH and G genes of turkey rhinotracheitis virus and their intergenic regions reveals a gene order different from that of other pneumoviruses, J Gen Virol, vol.73, pp.1709-1715, 1992.

R. Ling and C. R. Pringle, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus: in vivo and in vitro polypeptide synthesis, J Gen Virol, vol.69, pp.917-923, 1988.

R. Ling, S. Sinkovic, D. Toquin, O. Guionie, N. Eterradossi et al., Deletion of the SH gene from avian metapneumovirus has a greater impact on virus production and immunogenicity in turkeys than deletion of the G gene or M2-2 open reading frame, J Gen Virol, vol.89, issue.2, pp.525-533, 2008.

S. A. Lister and D. J. Alexander, Turkey Rhinotracheitis: A Review, Veterinary Bulletin, issue.56, pp.637-663, 1986.

J. B. Litjens, F. C. Van-willigen, and M. Sinke, Tijdschr Diergeneeskd, vol.114, issue.13, pp.719-720, 1989.

L. Liu, N. Bastien, and Y. Li, Intracellular processing, glycosylation, and cell surface expression of human metapneumovirus attachment glycoprotein, J Virol, vol.81, issue.24, pp.13435-13443, 2007.

L. H. Loo, M. R. Jumat, Y. Fu, T. C. Ayi, P. S. Wong et al.,

R. J. Sugrue, Evidence for the interaction of the human metapneumovirus G and F proteins during virus-like particle formation, Virol J, vol.10, p.294, 2013.

M. V. Loock, K. Loots, S. V. Zande, M. V. Heerden, H. Nauwynck et al.,

. Vanrompay, Pathogenic interactions between Chlamydophila psittaci and avian pneumovirus infections in turkeys, Vet Microbiol, vol.112, issue.1, pp.53-63, 2006.

L. Luo, M. I. Sabara, and Y. Li, Analysis of antigenic cross-reactivity between subgroup C avian pneumovirus and human metapneumovirus by using recombinant fusion proteins, Transbound Emerg Dis, vol.56, issue.8, pp.303-310, 2009.

C. Lupini, M. Cecchinato, E. Ricchizzi, C. J. Naylor, and E. Catelli, A turkey rhinotracheitis outbreak caused by the environmental spread of a vaccine-derived avian metapneumovirus, Avian Pathol, vol.40, issue.5, pp.525-530, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00724185

W. Luytjes, M. Krystal, M. Enami, J. D. Parvin, and P. Palese, Amplification, expression, and packaging of foreign gene by influenza virus, Cell, vol.59, issue.6, pp.1107-1113, 1989.

H. C. Lwamba, R. Alvarez, M. G. Wise, Q. Yu, D. Halvorson et al., Comparison of the full-length genome sequence of avian metapneumovirus subtype C with other paramyxoviruses, Virus Res, vol.107, issue.1, pp.83-92, 2005.

P. Maes and G. K. Amarasinghe, Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: second update, 2018.

S. B. Maharaj, D. K. Thomson, and J. V. Da-graca, Isolation of an avian pneumovirus-like agent from broiler breeder chickens in South Africa, Vet Rec, vol.134, issue.20, pp.525-526, 1994.

N. Majo, G. M. Allan, C. J. O'loan, A. Pages, and A. J. Ramis, A sequential histopathologic and immunocytochemical study of chickens, turkey poults, and broiler breeders experimentally infected with turkey rhinotracheitis virus, Avian Dis, vol.39, issue.4, pp.887-896, 1995.

N. Majo, X. Gibert, M. Vilafranca, C. J. O'loan, G. M. Allan et al.,

A. Ramis, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus and Escherichia coli experimental infection in chickens: histopathological, immunocytochemical and microbiological study, Vet Microbiol, vol.57, issue.1, pp.29-40, 1997.

N. Majo, M. Marti, C. J. O'loan, G. M. Allan, A. Pages et al., Ultrastructural study of turkey rhinotracheitis virus infection in turbinates of experimentally infected chickens, Vet Microbiol, vol.52, issue.1-2, pp.37-48, 1996.

M. Marien, A. Decostere, A. Martel, K. Chiers, R. Froyman et al., Synergy between avian pneumovirus and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkeys, Avian Pathol, vol.34, issue.3, pp.204-211, 2005.

A. C. Marriott, J. M. Smith, and A. J. Easton, Fidelity of leader and trailer sequence usage by the respiratory syncytial virus and avian pneumovirus replication complexes, J Virol, vol.75, issue.14, pp.6265-6272, 2001.

M. Martick, L. H. Horan, H. F. Noller, and W. G. Scott, A discontinuous hammerhead ribozyme embedded in a mammalian messenger RNA, Nature, vol.454, issue.7206, pp.899-902, 2008.

C. Masante, F. E. Najjar, A. Chang, A. Jones, C. L. Moncman et al., The human metapneumovirus small hydrophobic protein has properties consistent with those of a viroporin and can modulate viral fusogenic activity, J Virol, vol.88, issue.11, pp.6423-6433, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01101081

M. Mase, S. Yamaguchi, K. Tsukamoto, T. Imada, K. Imai et al., Presence of avian pneumovirus subtypes A and B in Japan, Avian Dis, vol.47, issue.2, pp.481-484, 2003.

G. Mcdonnell, Hydrogen peroxide fogging/fumigation, Journal of Hospital Infection, vol.62, issue.3, pp.385-386, 2006.

J. S. Mcdougall and J. K. Cook, Turkey rhinotracheitis: preliminary investigations, Vet Rec, vol.118, issue.8, pp.206-207, 1986.

J. L. Meier and M. F. Stinski, Regulation of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene expression, Intervirology, vol.39, issue.5-6, pp.331-342, 1996.

G. Meulemans, M. Boschmans, M. Decaesstecker, T. P. Berg, P. Denis et al., Epidemiology of infectious bronchitis virus in Belgian broilers: a retrospective study, vol.30, pp.411-421, 1986.

R. M. Moudy, W. M. Sullender, and G. W. Wertz, Variations in intergenic region sequences of Human respiratory syncytial virus clinical isolates: analysis of effects on transcriptional regulation, Virology, vol.327, issue.1, pp.121-133, 2004.

C. Naylor, K. Shaw, P. Britton, and D. Cavanagh, Appearance of type B avian Pneumovirus in great Britain, Avian Pathol, vol.26, issue.2, pp.327-338, 1997.

C. J. Naylor, A. R. Al-ankari, A. I. Al-afaleq, J. M. Bradbury, and R. C. Jones, , 1992.

, Exacerbation of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in turkeys by rhinotracheitis virus, Avian Pathology, vol.21, pp.295-305

C. J. Naylor, P. A. Brown, N. Edworthy, R. Ling, R. C. Jones et al., Development of a reverse-genetics system for Avian pneumovirus demonstrates that the small hydrophobic (SH) and attachment (G) genes are not essential for virus viability, J Gen Virol, vol.85, pp.3219-3227, 2004.

C. J. Naylor and R. C. Jones, Turkey rhinotracheistis: a review, Veterinary Bulletin, vol.63, issue.5, pp.439-449, 1993.

C. J. Naylor and R. C. Jones, Demonstration of a virulent subpopulation in a prototype live attenuated turkey rhinotracheitis vaccine, Vaccine, vol.12, issue.13, pp.1225-1230, 1994.

C. J. Naylor, C. Lupini, and P. A. Brown, Charged amino acids in the AMPV fusion protein have more influence on induced protection than deletion of the SH or G genes, Vaccine, vol.28, issue.41, pp.6800-6807, 2010.

J. A. Nelson, J. W. Gnann, J. , and P. , Regulation and tissue-specific expression of human cytomegalovirus, Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, vol.154, pp.75-100, 1990.

J. D. O'brien, Swollen head syndrome in broiler breeders, Vet Rec, vol.117, issue.23, pp.619-620, 1985.

R. A. Olmsted, B. R. Murphy, L. A. Lawrence, N. Elango, B. Moss et al., Processing, surface expression, and immunogenicity of carboxy-terminally truncated mutants of G protein of human respiratory syncytial virus, Journal of Virology, vol.63, issue.1, pp.411-420, 1989.

H. Ongor, M. Karahan, R. Kalin, H. Bulut, and B. Cetinkaya, Detection of avian metapneumovirus subtypes in turkeys using RT-PCR, Vet Rec, vol.166, issue.12, pp.363-366, 2010.

A. A. Owoade, M. F. Ducatez, J. M. Hubschen, A. Sausy, H. Chen et al., Avian metapneumovirus subtype A in China and subtypes A and B in Nigeria, Avian Dis, vol.52, issue.3, pp.502-506, 2008.

D. P. Patnayak, A. M. Prasad, Y. S. Malik, M. A. Ramakrishnan, and S. M. Goyal, Efficacy of disinfectants and hand sanitizers against avian respiratory viruses, Avian Dis, vol.52, issue.2, pp.199-202, 2008.

A. K. Pattnaik, L. A. Ball, A. W. Legrone, and G. W. Wertz, Infectious defective interfering particles of VSV from transcripts of a cDNA clone, Cell, vol.69, issue.6, pp.1011-1020, 1992.

A. K. Pattnaik and G. W. Wertz, Replication and amplification of defective interfering particle RNAs of vesicular stomatitis virus in cells expressing viral proteins from vectors containing cloned cDNAs, Journal of Virology, vol.64, issue.6, pp.2948-2957, 1990.

A. K. Pattnaik and G. W. Wertz, Cells that express all five proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus from cloned cDNAs support replication, assembly, and budding of defective interfering particles, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.88, issue.4, pp.1379-1383, 1991.

S. Paudel and H. J. Shin, Role of trypsin in the replication of Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (strain MN-2a) and its entry into the Vero cells, Mol Cell Probes, vol.29, issue.6, pp.485-491, 2015.

N. Pereira, C. Cardone, S. Lassoued, M. Galloux, J. Fix et al., New Insights into Structural Disorder in Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Phosphoprotein and Implications for Binding of Protein Partners, J Biol Chem, vol.292, issue.6, pp.2120-2131, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02309076

Q. N. Pham, S. Biacchesi, M. H. Skiadopoulos, B. R. Murphy, P. L. Collins et al., Chimeric recombinant human metapneumoviruses with the nucleoprotein or phosphoprotein open reading frame replaced by that of avian metapneumovirus exhibit improved growth in vitro and attenuation in vivo, J Virol, vol.79, issue.24, pp.15114-15122, 2005.

J. P. Picault, P. Giraud, P. Drouin, M. Guittet, G. Bennejean et al., Isolation of a TRTV-like virus from chickens with swollen-head syndrome, Vet Rec, vol.121, issue.6, p.135, 1987.

J. P. Picault, P. Giraud, J. Lamande, D. Toquin, C. Gueguen et al., syndrome de gonflement de la tête chez la poule et la pintade: Une étiologie commune avec la rhinotracheite infectieuse de la dinde, L'Aviculteur, vol.481, pp.74-75, 1987.

O. Poch, B. M. Blumberg, L. Bougueleret, and N. Tordo, Sequence comparison of five polymerases (L proteins) of unsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses: theoretical assignment of functional domains, J Gen Virol, vol.71, pp.1153-1162, 1990.

O. Poch, I. Sauvaget, M. Delarue, and N. Tordo, Identification of four conserved motifs among the RNA-dependent polymerase encoding elements, Embo j, vol.8, issue.12, pp.3867-3874, 1989.

J. Y. Qin, L. Zhang, K. L. Clift, I. Hulur, A. P. Xiang et al., Systematic comparison of constitutive promoters and the doxycycline-inducible promoter, PloS one, vol.5, issue.5, pp.10611-10611, 2010.

V. R. Racaniello and D. Baltimore, Cloned poliovirus complementary DNA is infectious in mammalian cells, Science, vol.214, issue.4523, pp.916-919, 1981.

F. Radecke, P. Spielhofer, H. Schneider, K. Kaelin, M. Huber et al., Rescue of measles viruses from cloned DNA, The EMBO Journal, vol.14, issue.23, pp.5773-5784, 1995.

J. S. Randhawa, A. C. Marriott, C. R. Pringle, and A. J. Easton, Rescue of synthetic minireplicons establishes the absence of the NS1 and NS2 genes from avian pneumovirus, J Virol, vol.71, issue.12, pp.9849-9854, 1997.

A. K. Reinhardt, A. V. Gautier-bouchardon, M. Gicquel-bruneau, M. Kobisch, and I. Kempf, Persistence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens after treatment with enrofloxacin without development of resistance, Vet Microbiol, vol.106, issue.1-2, pp.129-137, 2005.

J. Ren, Q. Wang, D. Kolli, D. J. Prusak, C. T. Tseng et al., Human metapneumovirus M2-2 protein inhibits innate cellular signaling by targeting MAVS, J Virol, vol.86, issue.23, pp.13049-13061, 2012.

Y. Ren, E. Choi, K. Zhang, Y. Chen, S. Ye et al.,

X. Bao, Detection of Nuclear Protein Profile Changes by Human Metapneumovirus M2-2 Protein Using Quantitative Differential Proteomics, Vaccines (Basel), vol.5, issue.4, 2017.

M. Renner, M. Bertinelli, C. Leyrat, G. C. Paesen, L. F. De-oliveira et al.,

. Grimes, Nucleocapsid assembly in pneumoviruses is regulated by conformational switching of the N protein, p.5, 2016.

M. Renner, G. C. Paesen, C. M. Grison, S. Granier, J. M. Grimes et al., Structural dissection of human metapneumovirus phosphoprotein using small angle x-ray scattering, Sci Rep, vol.7, issue.1, p.14865, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02075132

J. F. Rivera-benitez, R. Martinez-bautista, F. Rios-cambre, and H. Ramirez-mendoza, Molecular detection and isolation of avian metapneumovirus in Mexico, Avian Pathol, vol.43, issue.3, pp.217-223, 2014.

L. Rodriguez, I. Cuesta, A. Asenjo, and N. Villanueva, Human respiratory syncytial virus matrix protein is an RNA-binding protein: binding properties, location and identity of the RNA contact residues, J Gen Virol, vol.85, pp.709-719, 2004.

R. W. Ruigrok, T. Crepin, and D. Kolakofsky, Nucleoproteins and nucleocapsids of negativestrand RNA viruses, Curr Opin Microbiol, vol.14, issue.4, pp.504-510, 2011.

P. Rusin and G. C. , Association of chlorination and UV irradiation to increasing antibiotic resistance in bacteria, Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, pp.1-52, 2001.

A. B. Ryder, S. J. Tollefson, A. B. Podsiad, J. E. Johnson, and J. V. Williams, Soluble recombinant human metapneumovirus G protein is immunogenic but not protective, Vaccine, vol.28, issue.25, pp.4145-4152, 2010.

Y. Sabo, M. Ehrlich, and E. Bacharach, The conserved YAGL motif in human metapneumovirus is required for higher-order cellular assemblies of the matrix protein and for virion production, J Virol, vol.85, issue.13, pp.6594-6609, 2011.

J. H. Schickli, J. Kaur, M. Macphail, J. M. Guzzetta, R. R. Spaete et al., Deletion of human metapneumovirus M2-2 increases mutation frequency and attenuates growth in hamsters, Virology Journal, vol.5, pp.69-69, 2008.

V. Schildgen, B. Van-den-hoogen, R. Fouchier, R. A. Tripp, R. Alvarez et al., Human Metapneumovirus: Lessons Learned over the First Decade, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.24, issue.4, pp.734-754, 2011.

J. Schlender, G. Zimmer, G. Herrler, and K. K. Conzelmann, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Fusion Protein Subunit F2, Not Attachment Protein G, Determines the Specificity of RSV Infection, Journal of Virology, vol.77, issue.8, pp.4609-4616, 2003.

H. Schneider, P. Spielhofer, K. Kaelin, C. Dotsch, F. Radecke et al., Rescue of measles virus using a replication-deficient vaccinia-T7 vector, J Virol Methods, vol.64, issue.1, pp.57-64, 1997.

M. J. Schnell, T. Mebatsion, and K. K. Conzelmann, Infectious rabies viruses from cloned cDNA, The EMBO Journal, vol.13, issue.18, pp.4195-4203, 1994.

R. M. Schowalter, A. Chang, J. G. Robach, U. J. Buchholz, and R. E. Dutch, Low-pH triggering of human metapneumovirus fusion: essential residues and importance in entry, J Virol, vol.83, issue.3, pp.1511-1522, 2009.

B. S. Seal, Matrix protein gene nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence demonstrate that the first US avian pneumovirus isolate is distinct from European strains, Virus Res, vol.58, issue.1-2, pp.45-52, 1998.

B. S. Seal, Avian pneumovirus and emergence of a new type in the United States of America, Anim. Health Res. Rev, issue.1, pp.67-72, 2000.

D. A. Senne, J. C. Edson, B. Pederson, and . Panigrahy, Avian pneumovirus update, 1997.

M. K. Njenga, Molecular epidemiology of subgroup C avian pneumoviruses isolated from the United States and comparison with subgroup A and B viruses, J. Clin. Microbiol, issue.40, pp.1687-1693, 2002.

H. J. Shin, K. V. Nagaraja, B. Mccomb, D. A. Halvorson, F. F. Jirjis et al.,

M. K. Njenga, Isolation of avian pneumovirus from mallard ducks that is genetically similar to viruses isolated from neighboring commercial turkeys, Virus Res, vol.83, issue.1-2, pp.207-212, 2002.

H. J. Shin, M. K. Njenga, D. A. Halvorson, D. P. Shaw, and K. V. Nagaraja, Susceptibility of ducks to avian pneumovirus of turkey origin, Am J Vet Res, vol.62, issue.7, pp.991-994, 2001.

H. J. Shin, M. K. Njenga, B. Mccomb, D. A. Halvorson, and K. V. Nagaraja, Avian pneumovirus (APV) RNA from wild and sentinel birds in the United States has genetic homology with RNA from APV isolates from domestic turkeys, J Clin Microbiol, vol.38, issue.11, pp.4282-4284, 2000.

H. J. Shin, G. Rajashekara, F. F. Jirjis, D. P. Shaw, S. M. Goyal et al., Specific detection of avian pneumovirus (APV) US isolates by RT-PCR, Arch Virol, vol.145, issue.6, pp.1239-1246, 2000.

M. H. Skiadopoulos, S. Biacchesi, U. J. Buchholz, E. Amaro-carambot, S. R. Surman et al., Individual contributions of the human metapneumovirus F, G, and SH surface glycoproteins to the induction of neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity, Virology, vol.345, issue.2, pp.492-501, 2006.

S. Smallwood, C. D. Easson, J. A. Feller, S. M. Horikami, and S. A. Moyer, Mutations in conserved domain II of the large (L) subunit of the Sendai virus RNA polymerase abolish RNA synthesis, Virology, vol.262, issue.2, pp.375-383, 1999.

J. Sourimant, M. A. Rameix-welti, A. L. Gaillard, D. Chevret, M. Galloux et al., Fine mapping and characterization of the L-polymerase-binding domain of the respiratory syncytial virus phosphoprotein, J Virol, vol.89, issue.8, pp.4421-4433, 2015.

J. C. Stuart, Rhinotracheitis: turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) in Great Britain, 1989.

J. Sun, Y. Wei, A. Rauf, Y. Zhang, Y. Ma et al.,

J. Li, Methyltransferase-defective avian metapneumovirus vaccines provide complete protection against challenge with the homologous Colorado strain and the heterologous Minnesota strain, J Virol, vol.88, issue.21, pp.12348-12363, 2014.

D. Toquin, V. O.-guionie, F. Jestin, C. Zwingelstein, N. Allee et al., European and American subgroup C isolates of avian metapneumovirus belong to different genetic lineages, Virus Genes, vol.32, issue.1, pp.97-103, 2006.

E. Townsend, D. A. Halvorson, K. V. Nagaraja, and D. P. Shaw, Susceptibility of an avian pneumovirus isolated from Minnesota turkeys to physical and chemical agents, Avian Dis, vol.44, issue.2, pp.336-342, 2000.

T. L. Tran, N. Castagne, V. Dubosclard, S. Noinville, E. Koch et al.,

J. F. Eleouet, The respiratory syncytial virus M2-1 protein forms tetramers and interacts with RNA and P in a competitive manner, J Virol, vol.83, issue.13, pp.6363-6374, 2009.

E. A. Turpin, L. E. Perkins, and D. E. Swayne, Experimental infection of turkeys with avian pneumovirus and either Newcastle disease virus or Escherichia coli, Avian Dis, vol.46, issue.2, pp.412-422, 2002.

E. A. Turpin, D. E. Stallknecht, R. D. Slemons, L. Zsak, and D. E. Swayne, Evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype C infection of wild birds in Georgia, Avian Pathol, vol.37, issue.3, pp.343-351, 2008.

S. Van-de-zande, H. Nauwynck, D. Cavanagh, and M. Pensaert, Infections and reinfections with avian pneumovirus subtype A and B on Belgian turkey farms and relation to respiratory problems, J. Vet. Med. B, vol.45, pp.621-626, 1998.

S. Van-de-zande, H. Nauwynck, S. De-jonghe, and M. Pensaert, Comparative pathogenesis of Avian pneumovirus subtype A and B in turkeys, Avian Pathol, vol.28, pp.239-244, 1999.

S. Van-de-zande, H. Nauwynck, C. Naylor, M. Pensaert-;-van-de-zande, S. et al., The clinical, pathological and microbiological outcome of an Escherichia coli O2:K1 infection in avian pneumovirus infected turkeys, Vet Microbiol, vol.147, issue.5, pp.719-724, 2000.

B. Vanmechelen, M. Bletsa, L. Laenen, A. R. Lopes, V. Vergote et al.,

P. Maes, Discovery and genome characterization of three new Jeilongviruses, a lineage of paramyxoviruses characterized by their unique membrane proteins, BMC Genomics, vol.19, issue.1, p.617, 2018.

B. T. Velayudhan, V. C. Lopes, S. L. Noll, D. A. Halvorson, and K. V. Nagaraja, Avian pneumovirus and its survival in poultry litter, Avian Dis, vol.47, issue.3, pp.764-768, 2003.

B. T. Velayudhan, Q. Yu, C. N. Estevez, K. V. Nagaraja, and D. A. Halvorson, Glycoprotein gene truncation in avian metapneumovirus subtype C isolates from the United States, Virus Genes, vol.37, issue.2, pp.266-272, 2008.

L. Wei, S. Zhu, X. Yan, J. Wang, C. Zhang et al.,

J. Liu, Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C infection in chickens, China, Emerg Infect Dis, vol.19, issue.7, pp.1092-1094, 2013.

Y. Weisman, C. Strengal, R. Blumenkranz, Y. Segal, ;. Usa et al., Turkey rhinotracheistis (TRT) in turkey flocks in Israel -Virus isolation and serological response Sacramento California, vol.12, p.6326, 1988.

X. Wen, J. C. Krause, G. P. Leser, R. G. Cox, R. A. Lamb et al., Structure of the human metapneumovirus fusion protein with neutralizing antibody identifies a pneumovirus antigenic site, Nat Struct Mol Biol, vol.19, issue.4, pp.461-463, 2012.

X. Wen, J. Pickens, J. J. Mousa, G. P. Leser, R. A. Lamb et al., A Chimeric Pneumovirus Fusion Protein Carrying Neutralizing Epitopes of Both MPV and RSV, PLoS One, vol.11, issue.5, p.155917, 2016.

S. S. Whitehead, A. Bukreyev, M. N. Teng, C. Y. Firestone, M. St-claire et al., Recombinant respiratory syncytial virus bearing a deletion of either the NS2 or SH gene is attenuated in chimpanzees, J Virol, vol.73, issue.4, pp.3438-3442, 1999.

R. A. Williams, C. E. Savage, and R. C. Jones, Development of a live attenuated vaccine against turkey rhinotracheitis, Avian Pathol, vol.20, issue.1, pp.45-55, 1991.

R. L. Wilson, S. M. Fuentes, P. Wang, E. C. Taddeo, A. Klatt et al., Function of small hydrophobic proteins of paramyxovirus, J Virol, vol.80, issue.4, pp.1700-1709, 2006.

Q. Yu, P. J. Davis, T. Barrett, M. M. Binns, M. E. Boursnell et al., Deduced amino acid sequence of the fusion glycoprotein of turkey rhinotracheitis virus has greater identity with that of human respiratory syncytial virus, a pneumovirus, than that of paramyxoviruses and morbilliviruses, J Gen Virol, vol.72, pp.75-81, 1991.

Q. Yu, P. J. Davis, T. D. Brown, and D. Cavanagh, Sequence and in vitro expression of the M2 gene of turkey rhinotracheitis pneumovirus, J Gen Virol, vol.73, pp.1355-1363, 1992.

Q. Yu, C. Estevez, M. Song, D. Kapczynski, and L. Zsak, Generation and biological assessment of recombinant avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) viruses containing different length of the G gene, Virus Res, vol.147, issue.2, pp.182-188, 2010.

Q. Yu, C. N. Estevez, J. P. Roth, H. Hu, and L. Zsak, Deletion of the M2-2 gene from avian metapneumovirus subgroup C impairs virus replication and immunogenicity in Turkeys, Virus Genes, vol.42, issue.3, pp.339-346, 2011.

W. Yu, C. Yang, X. Hao, T. Ma, and F. Huang, Successful infection of BALB/c mice by a swine hepatitis E virus clone constructed with reverse genetics, vol.18, p.687, 2018.

B. Yun, X. Guan, Y. Liu, Y. Gao, Y. Wang et al.,

X. Wang, Trypsin-and low pHmediated fusogenicity of avian metapneumovirus fusion proteins is determined by residues at positions 100, 101 and 294, Sci Rep, vol.5, p.15584, 2015.

B. L. Yun, X. L. Guan, Y. Z. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang et al., Integrin alphavbeta1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection, J Biol Chem, vol.291, issue.28, pp.14815-14825, 2016.

A. S. Yunus, D. Govindarajan, Z. Huang, and S. K. Samal, Deduced amino acid sequence of the small hydrophobic protein of US avian pneumovirus has greater identity with that of human metapneumovirus than those of non-US avian pneumoviruses, Virus Res, vol.93, issue.1, pp.91-97, 2003.

Y. Zhang, J. Sun, Y. Wei, and J. Li, A Reverse Genetics Approach for the Design of Methyltransferase-Defective Live Attenuated Avian Metapneumovirus Vaccines, Methods Mol Biol, vol.1404, pp.103-121, 2016.