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Bases moléculaires de la spécificité d'hôte chez les métapneumovirus aviaires

Abstract : Avian metapneumoviruses (AMPV) cause respiratory and genital disorders in poultry, most notably, turkeys, chickens and ducks and are a major economic concern for the industry. To date, four subgroups of AMPV (A, B, C and D) and two genetic lineages of AMPV-C (Us and Fr) have been identified based on antigenic and genetic differences. However, their host tropism is not clearly defined. To address this issue the first part of the thesis focused on the host spectrum of the different subgroups and lineages of AMPV in turkeys, chickens and ducks, in respect to pathogenicity and horizontal transmission of the viruses. Globally, the results showed that AMPV-A, B, Us-C and D were well adapted to Galliformes (turkeys and chickens) and that the Fr-AMPV-C virus was well adapted to ducks. Interestingly, infectious AMPV-C viruses of both lineages were re-isolated from what could be considered as “non-conventional” hosts i.e. galliformes for Fr-AMPV-C and chickens for Us-AMPV-C with indications of genome modifications that altered the expression or the integrity of the SH gene. To test a hypothesis that SH plays a role in host tropism, the second part of the thesis consisted in the development of a reverse genetic system for Fr-AMPV-C from which recombinant Fr-AMPV-C viruses with SH proteins derived from Us-AMPV-C’s were rescued. These viruses were then tested in SPF ducks and Turkeys under experimental conditions. Recombinant viruses did not demonstrate any notable alteration in host tropism in respect to the parental viruses. Thus it would be reasonable to assume that host tropism differences among AMPV Cs are not linked to the type of SH protein however, this needs to be confirmed by rescuing recombinant Us-AMPV-C viruses that express the SH protein of Fr-AMPV-C’s and performing the same experimental trials in SPF ducks and turkeys.
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Nathan Szerman. Bases moléculaires de la spécificité d'hôte chez les métapneumovirus aviaires. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université Rennes 1, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019REN1B027⟩. ⟨tel-02515980⟩

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