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Forçage sismique et déclenchement des mouvements de terrain : apport du suivi de glissements de terrain lents dans la vallée de la Colca, Pérou

Abstract : Landslides are the first secondary effect of earthquakes. Statistical analysis of regional inventories of earthquake-triggered-landslides after large earthquakes (Mw> 6.6) reveal a complex interaction between seismic shaking and rainfall. The consequence of this interaction is an increase of the landslide triggering rate for several months and even years after a large event. Even though a large amount of observation are available, the identification and the quantification of the different processes impacting landslide kinematics during and after an earthquake are very limited, due mainly to a lack of in situ monitoring. The main goal of this thesis is to study these mechanisms in regions where earthquakes and precipitations can be interdependent. To this purpose, we focused on slow-moving landslides, on which we can monitor physical processes of the gravitational dynamic with time.The studied slow-moving landslides are located in the Colca Valley, south Peru. This area presents several advantages: (1) several active slow-moving landslides are active, (2) the region is seismically very active and (3) the precipitations are seasonal.The first approach consists in studying the kinematic response of several slow-moving landslides to the same forcings. A method coming from the InSAR data processing has been adapted to compute time series of displacement fields, thanks to the inversion of satellite optical images. This allows us to go back as far as 28 years in the past in terms of displacements in the Colca Valley. We show the possible impact of a local Mw 5.4 earthquake in 1991 on the kinematics of the Maca landslide. Our results suggest a double effect of the earthquake, with a co- and post-seismic acceleration (<6 years) and a modification of the mechanical properties of the soil (damage) leading to a complex interaction with precipitations.To better understand the mechanisms at the origin of this combined effect, we studied in situ data (GPS and seismometer) acquired continuously on the Maca landslide since 2016. The processing of these data, coupling geodesy and ambient noise interferometry, allowed to evidence and quantify the damage of the soil generated by earthquakes together with the impact of precipitations on its healing. The influence of small magnitude earthquakes during the soil rigidity recovery is also highlighted together with the importance of the temporality between precipitations and earthquakes. Finally, we quantify the retrogression of the landslide thanks to new observation coupling the landslide’s kinematic and soil rigidity variations.
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Noélie Bontemps. Forçage sismique et déclenchement des mouvements de terrain : apport du suivi de glissements de terrain lents dans la vallée de la Colca, Pérou. Géologie appliquée. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAU028⟩. ⟨tel-02515917⟩

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