D. Abbott, L. Burgess, and J. Longhi, An empirical thermal history of the Earth ' s upper mantle, J. Geophys. Res. B Solid Earth, vol.99, pp.835-850, 1994.

J. C. Afonso and D. L. Schutt, The effects of polybaric partial melting on density and seismic velocities of mantle restites, Lithos, vol.134, pp.289-303, 2012.

C. B. Agee, Compressibility of water in magma and the prediction of density crossovers in mantle differentiation, Philos. Trans. A. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci, vol.366, pp.4239-52, 2008.

S. Akimoto and I. Fujisawa, Olivine-Spinel Solid Solution Equilibria in the System, J. Geophys. Res, vol.73, 1968.

J. A. Akins, S. N. Luo, P. D. Asimow, and T. J. Ahrens, Shock-induced melting of MgSiO3 perovskite and implications for melts in Earth's lowermost mantle, Geophysical Research Letters, issue.14, p.31, 2004.

D. Anderson and C. Sammis, Partial melting in the upper mantle, Phys Earth Planet Inter, vol.3, pp.41-50, 1970.

D. Andrault, N. Bolfan-casanova, G. L. Nigro, M. A. Bouhifd, G. Garbarino et al., , 2011.

, Solidus and liquidus profiles of chondritic mantle: Implication for melting of the Earth across its history. Earth and planetary science letters, vol.304, pp.251-259

D. Andrault, G. Pesce, M. A. Bouhifd, N. Bolfan-casanova, J. Hénot et al., Melting of subducted basalt at the core-mantle boundary, Science, vol.344, pp.892-897, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01134845

D. Andrault, J. Monteux, M. Le, and H. Samuel, The deep Earth may not be cooling down, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.443, pp.195-203, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01348679

D. Andrault, J. Monteux, M. Lebars, and H. Samuel, The deep Earth may not be cooling down, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.443, pp.195-203, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01348679

D. Andrault, G. Pesce, G. Manthilake, J. Monteux, N. Bolfan-casanova et al., Deep and persistent melt layer in the Archaean mantle, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01898410

D. Andrault, M. Muñoz, G. Pesce, V. Cerantola, A. Chumakov et al., Large oxygen excess in the primitive mantle could be the source of the Great Oxygenation Event, Geochemical Perspectives Letters, vol.6, pp.5-10, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01898322

D. Andrault, Thermodynamical constraints on the crystallization of a deep magma-ocean on Earth. Comptes rendus -Geosci, vol.351, pp.221-228, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02131519

P. Ardia, M. M. Hirschmann, A. C. Withers, and T. J. Tenner, H2O storage capacity of olivine at 5-8GPa and consequences for dehydration partial melting of the upper mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, pp.104-116, 2012.

M. Asheghi, K. Kurabayashi, R. Kasnavi, and K. E. Goodson, Thermal conduction in doped singlecrystal silicon films, Journal of applied physics, vol.91, issue.8, pp.5079-5088, 2002.

L. Auer, L. Boschi, T. W. Becker, and D. Giardini, Journal of Geophysical Research : Solid Earth Savani : A variable resolution whole-mantle model of anisotropic shear velocity variations based 3006-3034, 2014.

K. Baba, H. Utada, T. N. Goto, T. Kasaya, H. Shimizu et al., Electrical conductivity imaging of the Philippine Sea upper mantle using seafloor magnetotelluric data, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.183, pp.44-62, 2010.

S. Bajgain, D. B. Ghosh, and B. B. Karki, Structure and density of basaltic melts at mantle conditions from first-principles simulations, Nat. Commun, vol.6, pp.1-7, 2015.

A. Bambier, E. Berger, J. Mergoil, B. Valadas, Y. Veyret et al., Carte géologique de la France à 1/50 000 (n 840), Burzet: Des sources de l'Ardèche aux sources de la Loire, 1985.

A. E. Beck, D. M. Darbha, and H. H. Schloessin, Lattice conductivities of single-crystal and polycrystalline materials at mantle pressures and temperatures, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.17, pp.90008-90008, 1978.

P. Beck, A. F. Goncharov, V. Struzhkin, B. Militzer, H. K. Mao et al., Measurement of thermal diffusivity at high pressure using a transient heating technique Measurement of thermal diffusivity at high pressure using a transient heating technique, Applied Physics Letters, vol.181914, pp.9-12, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00501655

T. W. Becker, J. B. Kellogg, and R. J. O'-connell, Thermal constraints on the survival of primitive blobs in the lower mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.171, pp.351-365, 1999.

D. Bercovici and S. Karato, Whole-mantle convection and the transition-zone water filter, Nature, vol.425, pp.39-44, 2003.

E. Berger, Le volcanisme récent de l'Ardèche, vol.402, 1973.

E. Berger and M. C. Forette, Réactions de basaltes alcalins des Causses, du Vivarais et du Velay (France) avec les xénocristaux et les minéraux des enclaves homoéogènes, Bulletin de Minéralogie, vol.98, issue.6, pp.366-373, 1975.

E. Berger, Enclaves ultramafiques, mégacristaux et leurs basaltes-hôtes en contexte océanique, vol.470, 1981.

G. Bigazzi, Z. Yegingil, T. Ercan, M. Oddone, and M. Özdogan, Fission track dating obsidians in Central and Northern Anatolia, Bulletin of Volcanology, vol.55, issue.8, pp.588-595, 1993.

A. F. Birch and . H. Clark, No The thermal conductivity of rocks and its dependence upon temperature and composition, Am. J. Sci, vol.238, pp.529-558, 1940.

C. M. Bhandari and D. Rowe, Thermal Conduction in Semi-conductors, pp.13-34, 1998.

J. Blumm, J. B. Henderson, O. Nilsson, and J. Fricke, Laser flash measurement of the phononic thermal diffusivity of glasses in the presence of ballistic radiative transfer, High Temperatures. High Pressures, vol.29, issue.5, pp.555-560, 1997.

J. Blumm and S. Lemarchand, Influence of test conditions on the accuracy of laser flash measurements, vol.34, pp.523-528, 2002.

J. Blundy and B. Wood, Partitioning of trace elements between crystals and melts, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.210, pp.383-397, 2003.

R. Boehler, High-pressure experiments and the phase diagram of lower mantle and core materials, Reviews of Geophysics, vol.38, issue.2, pp.221-245, 2000.

N. Bolfan-casanova, H. Keppler, and D. C. Rubie, Water partitioning between nominally anhydrous minerals in the MgO-SiO2-H2O system up to 24 GPa: Implications for the distribution of water in the Earth's mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.182, pp.209-221, 2000.

N. Bolfan-casanova, G. Montagnac, and B. Reynard, Measurement of water contents in olivine using Raman spectroscopy, Am. Mineral, vol.99, pp.149-156, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01134882

N. Bolfan-casanova, F. Schiavi, D. Novella, H. Bureau, C. Raepsaet et al., Examination of Water Quantification and Incorporation in Transition Zone Minerals : Wadsleyite, Ringwoodite and Phase D Using ERDA (Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis), Frontiers in Earth Sciences, vol.6, p.75, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/cea-01818386

H. Bougault and M. Treuil, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: zero-age geochemical variations between Azores and 22 N, Nature, vol.286, issue.5770, p.209, 1980.

M. A. Bouhifd, D. Andrault, G. Fiquet, and P. Richet, Thermal expansion of forsterite up to the melting point, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.23, pp.1143-1146, 1996.

E. Boulard, A. King, N. Guignot, J. Deslandes, Y. Le-godec et al., High-speed tomography under extreme conditions at the PSICHE beamline of the SOLEIL Synchrotron research papers, J. Synchrotron Radiat, vol.25, pp.1-8, 2018.

P. W. Bridgman, The thermal conductivity and compressibility of several rocks under high pressures, Am. J. Sci, vol.7, pp.81-102, 1924.

F. Brunet, D. Andrault, and G. Chazot, La Terre interne: roches et matériaux en conditions extrêmes, 2007.

B. A. Buffett, Estimates of heat flow in the deep mantle based on the power requirements for the geodynamo, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.29, issue.12, pp.7-8, 2002.

B. Buffett, The thermal state of Earth's core. Science (80), vol.299, pp.1675-1677, 2003.

B. A. Buffett, Core-Mantle Interactions. Treatise Geophys, pp.8-12, 2007.

G. Y. Bussod and J. M. Christie, Textural development and melt topology in spinel lherzolite experimentally deformed at hypersolidus conditions, J. Petrol, vol.2, pp.17-39, 1991.

S. J. Byrnes, Basic theory and phenomenology of polarons, p.94720, 2008.

L. Cagniard, Basic theory of the magneto-telluric method of geophysical prospecting, Geophysics, vol.18, issue.3, pp.605-635, 1953.

D. G. Cahill, S. K. Watson, and R. O. Pohl, Lower limit to the thermal conductivity of disordered crystals, Physical Review B, vol.46, issue.10, p.6131, 1992.

A. J. Campbell, L. Danielson, K. Righter, C. T. Seagle, Y. Wang et al., High pressure effects on the iron-iron oxide and nickel-nickel oxide oxygen fugacity buffers, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.286, pp.556-564, 2009.

R. M. Canup, Forming a Moon with an Earth-like composition via a giant impact, Science, vol.338, issue.6110, pp.1052-1055, 2012.

J. Cape and G. Lehman, Temperature and Finite Pulse-Time Effects in the Flash Method for Measuring Thermal Diffusivity, Journal of Applied physics, 1963.

L. Caricchi, F. Gaillard, J. Mecklenburgh, and E. Le-trong, Experimental determination of electrical conductivity during deformation of melt-bearing olivine aggregates: implications for electrical anisotropy in the oceanic low velocity zone, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.302, issue.1-2, pp.81-94, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00556767

H. Carslaw and J. Jaegger, Conduction of heat in solids, 1959.

P. Cartigny, F. Pineau, C. Aubaud, and M. Javoy, Towards a consistent mantle carbon flux estimate: insights from volatile systematics ( H2O/Ce, ?D, CO2/ Nb) in the North Atlantic mantle (14°N and 34°N), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.265, pp.672-685, 2008.

M. Chai, J. M. Brown, and L. J. Slutsky, Thermal diffusivity of mantle minerals, Phys. Chem. Miner, vol.23, pp.470-475, 1996.

Y. Chang, S. D. Jacobsen, C. R. Bina, S. M. Thomas, J. R. Smyth et al., Comparative compressibility of hydrous wadsleyite and ringwoodite: effect of H2O and implications for detecting water in the transition zone, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, vol.120, pp.259-8280, 2015.

J. Chantel, Measurement of elastic properties of silicates at realistic mantle pressures, 2012.

J. Chantel, G. Manthilake, D. Andrault, D. Novella, T. Yu et al., Experimental evidence supports mantle partial melting in the asthenosphere, Sci. Adv, vol.2, issue.5, p.1600246, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01637098

A. Chopelas, Thermal expansivity of lower mantle phases MgO and MgSiO3 perovskite at high pressure derived from vibrational spectroscopy, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.98, pp.3-15, 1996.

N. Cluzel, Simulation expérimentale de l'ascension et de la vésiculation des magmas rhyolitiques. Sciences de la Terre, Français. <NNT : 2007CLF21749>. <tel-00717870>, 2007.

M. Cmíral, J. D. Fitz-gerald, U. H. Faul, and D. H. Green, A close look at dihedral angles and melt geometry in olivine-basalt aggregates: a TEM study, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol, vol.130, issue.3-4, pp.336-345, 1998.

S. Constable, SEO3: a new model of olivine electrical conductivity, Geophys. J. Int, vol.166, issue.1, pp.435-437, 2006.

S. Constable and C. Constable, Observing geomagnetic induction in magnetic satellite measurements and associated implications for mantle conductivity, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol.5, issue.1, 2004.

R. F. Cooper and D. L. Kohlstedt, Sintering of olivine and olivine basalt aggregates, Phys. Chem. Miner, vol.11, pp.5-16, 1984.

J. Crank, The mathematics of diffusion, 1975.

L. Dai and S. Karato, Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite at high temperatures and high pressures, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.287, pp.277-283, 2009.

L. Dai, H. Li, H. Hu, S. Shan, J. Jiang et al., The effect of chemical composition and oxygen fugacity on the electrical conductivity of dry and hydrous garnet at high temperatures and pressures, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, vol.163, issue.4, pp.689-700, 2012.

L. Dai, H. Li, H. Hu, J. Jiang, K. Hui et al., Electrical conductivity of Alm82Py15Grs3 almandine-rich garnet determined by impedance spectroscopy at high temperatures and high pressures, Tectonophysics, vol.608, pp.1086-1093, 2013.

L. Dai and S. Karato, High and highly anisotropic electrical conductivity of the asthenosphere due to hydrogen diffusion in olivine, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.408, pp.79-86, 2014.

R. Dasgupta and M. M. Hirschmann, Melting in the Earth's deep upper mantle caused by carbon dioxide, Nature, vol.440, issue.7084, pp.659-662, 2006.

R. Dasgupta and M. M. Hirschmann, Effect of variable carbonate concentration on the solidus of mantle peridotite, Am Mineral, vol.92, pp.370-379, 2007.

G. F. Davies and R. J. O&apos;connell, Transducer and bond phase shifts inultrasonics and their effects on measured pressure derivatives of elastic moduli, High pressure research: application in geophysics, pp.533-562, 1977.

G. F. Davies, Effect of plate bending on the Urey ratio and the thermal evolution of the mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.287, pp.513-518, 2009.

P. Debye, Zur theorie der spezifischen wärmen, Annalen der Physik, vol.344, issue.14, pp.789-839, 1912.

P. P. Debye, E. M. Conwell, S. Demouchy, and N. Bolfan-casanova, Distribution and transport of hydrogen in the lithospheric mantle: A review, Physical Review, vol.93, issue.4, pp.402-425, 1954.

J. T. Devreese, Polarons. Encycl. Appl. Phys, vol.14, pp.383-409, 1996.

J. E. Dixon, L. Leist, C. Langmuir, and J. Schilling, Recycled dehydrated lithosphere observed in plumeinfluenced mid-ocean-ridge basalt, Nature, vol.420, pp.385-389, 2002.

D. P. Dobson, N. C. Richmond, and J. P. Brodholt, A high-temperature electrical conduction mechanism in the lower mantle phase (Mg, Fe) 1? xO, Science, vol.275, issue.5307, pp.1779-1781, 1997.

D. P. Dobson and J. P. Brodholt, The electrical conductivity of the lower mantle phase magnesiowüstite at high temperatures and pressures, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.105, issue.B1, pp.531-538, 2000.

T. H. Druitt, P. J. Brenchley, Y. E. Gökten, and V. Francaviglia, Late Quaternary rhyolitic eruptions from the Acigöl Complex, central Turkey, Journal of the Geological Society, vol.152, issue.4, pp.655-667, 1995.

W. L. Du-frane, J. J. Roberts, D. A. Toffelmier, and J. A. Tyburczy, Anisotropy of electrical conductivity in dry olivine, Geophysical research letters, issue.24, p.32, 2005.

J. Dugdale and D. K. Macdonald, Lattice thermal conductivity, Phys. Rev, pp.58-1751, 1955.

L. Dzhavadov, Measurement of thermophysical properties of dielectrics under pressure, vol.7, pp.49-54, 1975.

A. Eucken, Über die Temperaturabhängigkeit der Wärmeleitfähigkeit fester Nichtmetalle, Ann Phys, 1911.

U. H. Faul, D. R. Toomey, and H. S. Waff, Intergranular basaltic melt is distributed in thin, elongated inclusions, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.21, issue.1, pp.29-32, 1994.

U. H. Faul, J. D. Fitz-gerald, and I. Jackson, Shear wave attenuation and dispersion in melt-bearing olivine polycrystals: 2. Microstructural interpretation and seismological implications, J. Geophys. Res. B. Solid Earth, vol.109, pp.1-20, 2004.

R. J. Farla, C. J. Peach, and S. M. Grotenhuis, Electrical conductivity of synthetic iron-bearing olivine, Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, vol.37, issue.3, pp.167-178, 2010.

H. Fei, D. Yamazaki, M. Sakurai, N. Miyajima, H. Ohfuji et al., A nearly water-saturated mantle transition zone inferred from mineral viscosity, Sci. Adv, vol.3, pp.1-8, 2017.

H. ;. Fei, . Empg-xvi, F. Talk-;-clermont-ferrand, A. Férot, and N. Bolfan-casanova, Water storage capacity in olivine and pyroxene to 14GPa: Implications for the water content of the Earth's upper mantle and nature of seismic discontinuities, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, pp.349-350, 2012.

K. M. Fischer, H. A. Ford, D. L. Abt, and C. A. Rychert, The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci, vol.38, issue.1, pp.551-575, 2010.

J. Fourier, Extrait d'une mémoire sur le refroidissement séculaire du globe terrestre, pp.58-70, 1820.

D. Freitas, G. Manthilake, F. Schiavi, J. Chantel, N. Bolfan-casanova et al., Experimental evidence supporting a global melt layer at the base of the Earth's upper mantle, Nat. Commun, vol.8, p.2186, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01679036

D. Freitas, G. Manthilake, J. Chantel, M. .. Bouhfid, and D. Andrault, Simultaneous measurements of electrical conductivity and seismic velocity of partially molten geological materials: Implications for melt fraction in the upper mantle, Phys. Chem. Miner, vol.0, p.0, 2019.

D. Freitas and G. Manthilake, Electrical conductivity of hydrous silicate melts : Implications for the bottom-up hydration of Earth ' s upper mantle EPSL, vol.523, pp.1-9, 2019.

S. W. French and B. Romanowicz, Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath major hotspots, Nature, 2015.

D. J. Frost, B. T. Poe, R. G. Trønnes, C. Liebske, A. Duba et al., A new large-volume multianvil system, pp.507-514, 2004.

H. Fujisawa, N. Fujii, H. Mizutani, H. Kanmori, and S. Akimoto, Thermal Diffusivity of Mg2SiO4, Fe2SiO4, and NaCl at High Pressures and Temperatures, J. Geophys. Res, vol.73, p.4727, 1968.

F. Gaillard, Laboratory measurements of electrical conductivity of hydrous and dry silicic melts under pressure, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.218, pp.215-228, 2004.

F. Gaillard and G. I. Marziano, Electrical conductivity of magma in the course of crystallization controlled by their residual liquid composition, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00023414

F. Gaillard, M. Malki, G. Iacono-marziano, M. Pichavant, and B. Scaillet, Carbonatite melts and electrical conductivity in the asthenosphere, Science, vol.322, issue.5906, pp.1363-1365, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00343685

S. J. Galer and R. K. O&apos;nions, Magmagenesis and the mapping of chemical and isotopic variations in the mantle, Chem Geol, vol.56, issue.1, pp.90109-90118, 1986.

E. Gardes, M. Laumonier, M. Massuyeau, and F. Gaillard, Melt interconnection in the low velocity zone of Earth's upper mantle

T. Gasparik, Transformation of enstatite -diopside -jadeite pyroxenes to garnet, Contrib. to Mineral. Petrol, pp.389-405, 1989.

I. C. Getting and G. C. Kennedy, Effect of Pressure on the emf of ChromelAlumel and PlatinumPlatinum 10% Rhodium Thermocouples 4552, 1970.

B. Gibert, F. R. Schilling, K. Gratz, and A. Tommasi, Thermal diffusivity of olivine single crystals and a dunite at high temperature: Evidence for heat transfer by radiation in the upper mantle, Phys. Earth. Planet. Inter, vol.151, pp.129-141, 2005.

P. A. Giesting, A. M. Hofmeister, B. Wopenka, G. D. Gwanmesia, and B. L. Jolliff, Thermal conductivity and thermodynamics of majoritic garnets: implications for the transition zone, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.218, issue.1-2, pp.45-56, 2004.

P. Gillet, P. Richet, F. Guyot, and G. Fiquet, High-temperature thermodynamic properties of forsterite, J. Geophys. Res, vol.96, pp.11805-11816, 1991.

P. Glover, R. G. Ross, and H. Jolly, The measurement of saturated rock electrical conductivity at lower crustal temperatures and high pressures, High Pressure Science and Technology, vol.5, issue.1-6, pp.705-707, 1990.

C. Goetze, A brief summary of our present day understanding of the effect of volatiles and partial melt on the mechanical properties of the upper mantle, High-pressure research, applications in geophysics, pp.3-23, 1977.

A. F. Goncharov, V. V. Struzhkin, and S. D. Jacobsen, Reduced radiative conductivity of low-spin (Mg, Fe) O in the lower mantle, Science, issue.5777, pp.1205-1208, 2006.

A. F. Goncharov, B. D. Haugen, V. V. Struzhkin, P. Beck, and S. D. Jacobsen, Radiative conductivity in the Earth's lower mantle, Nature, vol.456, pp.231-235, 2008.

A. F. Goncharov, P. Beck, V. Struzhkin, B. D. Haugen, and S. D. Jacobsen, Thermal conductivity of lowermantle minerals, Phys. Earth. Planet. Inter, vol.174, pp.24-32, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00367338

A. F. Goncharov, V. V. Struzhkin, J. A. Montoya, S. Kharlamova, R. Kundargi et al., Effect of composition, structure, and spin state on the thermal conductivity of the Earth's lower mantle, Phys. Earth. Planet. Inter, vol.180, pp.148-153, 2010.

A. F. Goncharov, S. S. Lobanov, X. Tan, G. T. Hohensee, D. G. Cahill et al., Experimental study of thermal conductivity at high pressures: Implications for the deep Earth's interior, Phys. Earth. Planet. Inter, vol.247, pp.11-16, 2015.

G. Gordon, Plate motions , crustal and lithospheric mobility, and paleomagnetism : Prospective viewpoint, J. Geophys. Res, vol.100, pp.24367-24392, 1995.

G. Gordon, Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of Physical Constants, AGU Washin, 1995.

F. S. Grant and G. F. West, Interpretation theory in applied geophysics, vol.583, 1965.

A. V. Grayver, F. D. Munch, A. V. Kuvshinov, A. Khan, T. J. Sabaka et al., Joint inversion of satellite-detected tidal and magnetospheric signals constrains electrical conductivity and water content of the upper mantle and transition zone, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.44, pp.6074-6081, 2017.

S. M. Grotenhuis, M. R. Drury, C. J. Spiers, and C. J. Peach, Melt distribution in olivine rocks based on electrical conductivity measurements, vol.110, pp.1-11, 2005.

J. Grotzinger, T. H. Jordan, and F. Press, Understanding earth, 2010.

B. Guillot and N. Sator, A computer simulation study of natural silicate melts. Part II: High pressure properties, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.71, pp.4538-4556, 2007.

R. Hae, E. Ohtani, T. Kubo, T. Koyama, and H. Utada, Hydrogen diffusivity in wadsleyite and water distribution in the mantle transition zone, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.243, pp.141-148, 2006.

H. T. Hall, Some high-pressure, high-temperature apparatus design considerations -Equipment for use at 100000 atmospheres and 3000?C, Rev. Sci. Instrum, vol.29, issue.4, pp.267-275, 1958.

H. T. Hall, Anvil guide device for multiple-anvil high pressure apparatus, Rev. Sci. Instrum, vol.33, issue.11, pp.1278-1280, 1962.

H. T. Hall, High pressure apparatus -Ram-in-tie-bar multianvil presses, Rev. Phys. Chem. Jpn, vol.37, issue.2, pp.63-70, 1967.

W. C. Hammond and E. D. Humphreys, Upper mantle seismic wave attenuation: effects of realistic partial melt distribution, J. Geophys. Res, vol.105, issue.B5, pp.10987-10999, 2000.

R. T. Hansen, M. G. Bostock, and N. I. Christensen, Nature of the low velocity zone in Cascadia from receiver function waveform inversion, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 337, vol.338, pp.25-38, 2012.

B. Harte, Rock nomenclature with particular relation to deformation and recrystallisation textures in olivine-bearing xenoliths, The Journal of Geology, vol.85, issue.3, pp.279-288, 1977.

P. Hartlieb, M. Toifl, F. Kuchar, R. Meisels, and T. Antretter, Thermo-physical properties of selected hard rocks and their relation to microwave-assisted comminution, 2015.

E. H. Hauri, T. P. Wagner, and T. L. Grove, Experimental and natural partitioning of Th, U, Pb and other trace elements between garnet, clinopyroxene and basaltic melts, Chem. Geol, vol.117, pp.149-166, 1994.

H. Heckman, Finite pulse-time and heat-loss effects in pulse thermal diffusivity measurements, Journal of applied physics, pp.44-48, 1973.

J. Hernlund, K. Einenweber, D. Locke, and J. Tyburczy, A numerical model for steady-state temperature distributions in solid-medium high-pressure cell assemblies, Am. Min, vol.91, pp.295-305, 2006.

C. Herzberg, P. D. Asimow, N. Arndt, Y. Niu, C. M. Lesher et al., Temperatures in ambient mantle and plumes: Constraints from basalts, picrites, and komatiites, vol.8, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00226441

C. Herzberg, K. Condie, and J. Korenaga, Thermal history of the Earth and its petrological expression, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.292, pp.79-88, 2010.

S. Hier-majumder, Influence of contiguity on seismic velocities of partially molten aggregates, J Geophys Res Solid Earth, vol.113, issue.12, pp.1-14, 2008.

S. Hier-majumder, E. B. Keel, and A. M. Courtier, The influence of temperature, bulk composition, and melting on the seismic signature of the low-velocity layer above the transition zone, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, vol.119, pp.971-983, 2014.

S. Hier-majumder and B. Tauzin, Pervasive upper mantle melting beneath the western US, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.463, pp.25-35, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02329507

N. Hirano, E. Takahashi, J. Yamamoto, N. Abe, S. Ingle et al., Volcanism in response to plate flexure, Science, vol.313, issue.5792, pp.1426-1428, 2006.

M. Hirayama, On the relations between the variations of earth potential gradient and terrestrial mechanism, 1934.

L. M. Hirsch, T. J. Shankland, and A. G. Duba, Electrical conduction and polaron mobility in Fe-bearing olivine, Geophysical Journal International, vol.114, issue.1, pp.36-44, 1993.

M. M. Hirschmann, C. Aubaud, and A. C. Withers, Storage capacity of H2O in nominally anhydrous minerals in the upper mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.236, pp.167-181, 2005.

M. M. Hirschmann, Water, melting, and the deep Earth H2O cycle, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci, vol.34, pp.629-653, 2006.

M. M. Hirschmann, T. Tenner, C. Aubaud, and A. C. Withers, Dehydration melting of nominally anhydrous mantle: The primacy of partitioning, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.176, pp.54-68, 2009.

G. Hirth and D. L. Kohlstedt, Experimental constraints on the dynamics of the partially molten upper mantle: Deformation in the diffusion creep regime, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, vol.100, 1981.

M. Höfer, Heat transfer in quartz, orthoclase, and sanidine at elevated temperature, Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, vol.29, issue.9, pp.571-584, 2002.

A. W. Hofmann, Chemical differentiation of the Earth: the relationship between mantle, continental crust, and oceanic crust, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.90, pp.297-314, 1988.

A. W. Hofmann, Mantle geochemistry: the message from oceanic volcanism, Nature, vol.385, pp.219-229, 1997.

A. W. Hofmann, Just add water, Nature, vol.425, pp.24-25, 2003.

A. M. Hofmeister, Mantle Values of Thermal Conductivity and the Geotherm from Phonon Lifetimes. Science (80-. ), vol.283, pp.1699-1706, 1999.

A. M. Hofmeister, Thermal conductivity of spinels and olivines from vibrational spectroscopy: Ambient conditions, Am. Mineral, vol.86, pp.1188-1208, 2001.

A. M. Hofmeister, Dependence of diffusive radiative transfer on grain-size, temperature, and Fe-content : Implications for mantle processes, Journal of Geodynamics, vol.40, pp.51-72, 2005.

A. M. Hofmeister, Pressure dependence of thermal transport properties, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.104, pp.9192-9199, 2007.

A. M. Hofmeister and D. A. Yuen, Critical phenomena in thermal conductivity: Implications for lower mantle dynamics, J. Geodyn, vol.44, pp.186-199, 2007.

A. M. Hofmeister, Inference of high thermal transport in the lower mantle from laser-flash experiments and the damped harmonic oscillator model, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.170, pp.201-206, 2008.

A. M. Hofmeister, A. G. Whittington, and M. Pertermann, Transport properties of high albite crystals, near-endmember feldspar and pyroxene glasses, and their melts to high temperature, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, vol.158, issue.3, p.381, 2009.

A. M. Hofmeister, Scale aspects of heat transport in the diamond anvil cell, in spectroscopic modeling, and in Earth's mantle: Implications for secular cooling, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.180, pp.138-147, 2010.

A. M. Hofmeister, Thermal diffusivity of oxide perovskite compounds at elevated temperature, J. Appl. Phys, vol.107, pp.1-20, 2010.

A. Hofmeister, Thermodynamic and optical thickness correction to diffusive radiative transfer formulations with applications to planetary interiors, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.1, pp.1-7, 2014.

A. M. Hofmeister, Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of single -crystal MgO and Al 2 O 3 and related compounds as a function of temperature, Phys. Chem. Min, pp.361-371, 2014.

A. M. Hofmeister, J. Dong, and J. M. Branlund, Thermal diffusivity of electrical insulators at high temperatures: Evidence for diffusion of bulk phonon-polaritons at infrared frequencies augmenting phonon heat conduction, J. Appl. Phys, vol.115, 2014.

A. M. Hofmeister, A. Sehlke, and A. G. Whittington, Thermal diffusivity of Fe-rich pyroxene glasses and their melts, Chem. Geol, vol.384, pp.1-9, 2014.

A. M. Hofmeister, A. G. Whittington, J. Goldsand, and R. A. Criss, Effects of chemical composition and temperature on transport properties of silica-rich glasses and melts, Am. Mineral, vol.99, pp.564-577, 2014.

A. M. Hofmeister and J. M. Branlund, Thermal Conductivity of the Earth. Treatise of geophysics, pp.583-608, 2015.

K. G. Holland and T. J. Ahrens, Melting of (Mg, Fe) 2SiO4 at the core-mantle boundary of the Earth, Science, vol.275, issue.5306, pp.1623-1625, 1997.

K. Hosseini and K. J. Matthews, SubMachine : Web -based tools for exploring seismic tomography and other models of Earth ' s deep interior, vol.3, 2018.

W. P. Hsieh, B. Chen, J. Li, P. Keblinski, and D. G. Cahill, Pressure tuning of the thermal conductivity of the layered muscovite crystal, Phys. Rev. B -Condens. Matter Mater. Phys, vol.80, 2009.

X. Huang, Y. Xu, and S. Karato, Water content in the transition zone from electrical conductivity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite, Nature, vol.434, pp.746-749, 2005.

T. Inoue, Effect of water on melting phase relations and melt composition in the system Mg2SiO4MgSiO3H2O up to 15 GPa, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.85, issue.94, pp.90116-90119, 1994.

T. Inoue, D. J. Weidner, P. A. Northrup, and J. B. Parise, Elastic properties of hydrous ringwoodite (?-phase) in Mg2SiO4, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.160, pp.77-83, 1998.

H. Ishibashi, M. Arakawa, S. Ohi, J. Yamamoto, A. Miyake et al., Relationship between Raman spectral pattern and crystallographic orientation of a rock-forming mineral : a case study of Fo 89 Fa 11 olivine, J. Ram. Spec, pp.1653-1659, 2008.

I. Jackson, H. Niesler, and D. J. Weidner, Explicit correction of ultrasonically determined elastic wave velocities for transducer-bond phase shift, J. Geophys. Res, vol.86, pp.3736-3748, 1981.

I. Jackson, J. D. Gerald, U. H. Faul, and B. H. Tan, Grain-size-sensitive seismic wave attenuation in polycrystalline olivine, J. Geophys. Res, vol.107, pp.1-16, 2002.

I. Jackson, U. H. Faul, J. D. Fitz-gerald, and B. H. Tan, Shear wave attenuation and dispersion in meltbearing olivine polycrystals: 1. Specimen fabrication and mechanical testing, J. Geophys. Res. B Solid Earth, vol.109, pp.1-20, 2004.

S. D. Jacobsen, J. R. Smyth, H. A. Spetzler, C. A. Holl, and D. J. Frost, Sound velocities and elastic constants of iron-bearing hydrous ringwoodite, Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, vol.143, issue.144, pp.47-56, 2004.

Z. Jing and S. I. Karato, Compositional effect on the pressure derivatives of bulk modulus of silicate melts, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.272, pp.429-436, 2008.

Z. Jing and S. I. Karato, Effect of H2O on the density of silicate melts at high pressures: Static experiments and the application of a modified hard-sphere model of equation of state, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.85, pp.357-372, 2012.

D. Josell, J. Warren, and A. Cezairliyan, Comment on "'Analysis for determining thermal diffusivity from thermal pulse experiments, 1995.

C. L. Julian, Theory of heat conduction in rare-Gas crystal, Physical review, p.137, 1965.

F. Kaminsky, Earth-Science Reviews Mineralogy of the lower mantle : A review of 'super-deep ' mineral inclusions in diamond, Earth Sci. Rev, vol.110, pp.127-147, 2012.

H. Kanamori, H. Mizutani, and N. Fujii, Method of thermal diffusivity measurement, J. Phys. Earth, vol.17, pp.43-53, 1969.

I. Kanamori, X. Fujii, and I. Mizutani, Thermal diffusivity measurement fo rock-forming minerals from 300° to 1100° K, J. Geophys. Res, vol.73, 1968.

A. P. Kantor, S. D. Jacobsen, I. Y. Kantor, L. S. Dubrovinsky, C. A. Mccammon et al., Pressure-Induced Magnetization in FeO : Evidence from Elasticity ¨ ssbauer Spectroscopy and Mo 19-22, 2004.

S. Karato, The role of hydrogen in the electrical conductivity of the upper mantle, Nature, vol.347, pp.183-187, 1990.

S. Karato, Importance of anelasticity in the interpretation of seismic tomography, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.20, pp.1623-1626, 1993.

S. Karato, D. Bercovici, G. Leahy, G. Richard, and Z. Jing, The Transition-Zone Water Filter Model for Global Material Circulation : Where Do We Stand ? Earth's Deep Water Cycle 289-313, 2006.

S. I. Karato, Water distribution across the mantle transition zone and its implications for global material circulation, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.301, pp.413-423, 2011.

S. Karato, Does partial melting explain geophysical anomalies?, Phys Earth Planet Inter, vol.228, pp.300-306, 2014.

I. Katayama and S. Nakashima, Hydroxyl in clinopyroxene from the deep subducted crust : Evidence for H2O transport into the mantle, Am. Mineral, vol.88, pp.229-234, 2003.

T. Katsura, Thermal diffusivity of silica glass at pressures up to 9 GPa, Phys Chem Miner, vol.20, pp.201-208, 1993.

T. Katsura, Thermal diffusivity of periclase at high temperatures and high pressures, Physics of the earth and planetary interiors, vol.101, issue.1-2, pp.73-77, 1997.

T. Katsura, K. Sato, and E. Ito, Electrical conductivity of silicate perovskite at lower-mantle conditions, Nature, vol.395, pp.493-495, 1998.

T. Katsura, T. Yoshino, G. Manthilake, and T. Matsuzaki, Electrical conductivity of the major upper mantle minerals: a review, Russ. Geol. Geophys, vol.50, pp.1139-1145, 2009.

T. Katsura, A. Yoneda, D. Yamazaki, T. Yoshino, E. Ito et al., Adiabatic temperature profile in the mantle, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.183, pp.212-218, 2010.

N. Kawai and S. Endo, Generation of ultra-high hydrostatic pressures by a split sphere apparatus, Rev. Sci. Instrum, vol.41, issue.8, pp.1178-1181, 1970.

H. Kawakatsu, P. Kumar, Y. Takei, M. Shinohara, T. Kanazawa et al., Seismic evidence for sharp boundaries of oceanic plates, Science, vol.324, issue.5926, pp.499-502, 2009.

B. Kellett, Transmission of radiation through glass in tank furnace, J Soc Glas Technol, vol.36, pp.115-123, 1952.

B. Kellett, Correction to the paper in the 1952 issue, J. Soc. Glas. Technol, vol.37, p.268, 1953.

L. H. Kellogg, B. H. Hager, and R. D. Van-der-hilst, Compositional stratification in the deep mantle, Science, vol.283, issue.5409, pp.1881-1884, 1999.

W. T. Kelvin, On the age of the earth, 1897.

B. L. Kennett and E. R. Engdah, Traveltimes for global earthquake location and phase identification, pp.429-465, 1991.

B. L. Kennett, E. R. Engdahl, and R. Buland, Constraints on seismic velocities in the Earth from traveltimes, Geophys J Int, vol.122, pp.108-124, 1995.

N. I. Khitarov, A. B. Slutsky, and V. A. Pugin, Electrical conductivity of basalts at high TP and phase transitions under upper mantle conditions, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.3, pp.334-342, 1970.

P. G. Klemens, Thermal conductivity and lattice vibrational modes, Solid state physics, vol.7, pp.1-98, 1958.

J. S. Knibbe, S. M. Luginbühl, R. Stoevelaar, W. Plas, . Van-der et al., Calibration of a multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus to simulate planetary interior conditions, EPJ Techniques and instrumentation, vol.5, 2018.

Y. Kobayashi, Anisotropy of thermal diffusivity in olivine, pyroxene and dunite, Journal of Physics of the Earth, vol.22, issue.3, pp.359-373, 1974.

D. L. Kohlstedt, Structure, rheology and permeability of partially molten rocks at low melt fractions, pp.103-121, 1992.

D. L. Kohlstedt, H. Keppler, and D. C. Rubie, Solubility of water in the ?, ? and ? phases of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4, Contrib. to Mineral. Petrol, vol.123, pp.345-357, 1996.

Y. Kono, C. Park, T. Sakamaki, C. Kenny-benson, G. Shen et al., Simultaneous structure and elastic wave velocity measurement of SiO2 glass at high pressures and high temperatures in a Paris-Edinburgh cell, Rev. Sci. Instrum, vol.83, issue.3, p.33905, 2012.

Z. Konôpková, R. S. Mcwilliams, N. Gómez-pérez, and A. F. Goncharov, Direct measurement of thermal conductivity in solid iron at planetary core conditions, Nature, vol.534, pp.99-101, 2016.

J. Korenaga, Urey Ratio and the Structure and Evolution of Earth ' S Mantle, Am. Geophys. Union 1-32, 2008.

M. Kumar, Equation of state and bulk modulus under the effect of high pressure-high temperature, Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, vol.27, issue.9, pp.650-655, 2000.

J. Kung, B. Li, T. Uchida, and Y. Wang, In-situ elasticity measurement for the unquenchable highpressure clinopyroxene phase : Implication for the upper mantle, vol.32, pp.2-5, 2005.

T. Kunimoto and T. Irifune, Pressure generation to 125 GPa using 6-8-2 type multianvil apparatus with nano-polycrystalline diamond anvils, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser, vol.215, issue.1, p.12190, 2010.

A. Kuvshinov, H. Utada, D. Avdeev, and T. Koyama, 3-D modelling and analysis of Dst C-responses in the North Pacific Ocean region, revisited, Geophys. J. Int, vol.160, pp.505-526, 2005.

A. Kuvshinov and N. Olsen, A global model of mantle conductivity derived from 5 years of CHAMP, ??rsted, and SAC-C magnetic data, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.33, pp.1-5, 2006.

A. V. Kuvshinov, 3-D Global Induction in the Oceans and Solid Earth : Recent Progress in Modeling Magnetic and Electric and Oceanic Origin 139-186, 2008.

S. Labrosse, J. P. Poirier, and J. L. Le-mouël, The age of the inner core, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.190, issue.3-4, pp.111-123, 2001.

S. Labrosse, J. W. Hernlund, and N. Coltice, A crystallizing dense magma ocean at the base of the Earth's mantle, Nature, vol.450, pp.866-869, 2007.

S. Labrosse and C. Jaupart, Thermal evolution of the Earth: Secular changes and fluctuations of plate characteristics, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.260, pp.465-481, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00311679

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Course of theoretical physics, vol.3, p.3, 1965.

D. Laporte, C. Rapaille, and A. Provost, Wetting angles, equilibrium melt geometry, and the permeability threshold of partially molten crustal protoliths BT, pp.31-54, 1997.

D. Laporte and A. Provost, The grain-scale distribution of silicate, carbonate and metallosulfide partial melts: a review of theory and experiments, pp.93-140, 2000.

D. Laporte, M. J. Toplis, M. Seyler, and J. L. Devidal, A new experimental technique for extracting liquids from peridotite at very low degrees of melting: Application to partial melting of depleted peridotite, Contrib. to Mineral. Petrol, vol.146, pp.463-484, 2004.

G. Laske, A. Markee, J. A. Orcutt, C. J. Wolfe, J. A. Collins et al., Asymmetric shallow mantle structure beneath the Hawaiian Swell-evidence from Rayleigh waves recorded by the PLUME network, Geophys J Int, vol.187, issue.3, pp.1725-1742, 2011.

M. Laumonier, R. Farla, D. J. Frost, T. Katsura, K. Marquardt et al., Experimental determination of melt interconnectivity and electrical conductivity in the upper mantle, Earth Planet Sci Lett, vol.463, pp.286-297, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01685044

T. Lay, Deep Earth Structure -Lower Mantle and D 0. Treatise Geophys, pp.1-18, 2007.

T. Lay, J. Hernlund, and B. Buffett, Core -mantle boundary heat flow, Nat. Geosci, vol.1, pp.13-15, 2008.

G. M. Leahy and D. Bercovici, On the dynamics of a hydrous melt layer above the transition zone, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, vol.112, pp.1-14, 2007.

G. M. Leahy and D. Bercovici, Reactive infiltration of hydrous melt above the mantle transition zone, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, vol.115, pp.1-17, 2010.

L. Godec, Y. Le, D. Martinez-garcia, M. Mezouar, G. Syfosse et al., Thermoelastic behaviour of hexagonal graphite-like boron nitride, Res, vol.17, pp.35-46, 2000.

K. D. Leinenweber, J. A. Tyburczy, T. G. Sharp, E. Soignard, T. Diedrich et al., Cell assemblies for reproducible multi-anvil experiments (the COMPRES assemblies, vol.97, pp.353-368, 2012.

V. Lekic and B. Romanowicz, Inferring upper-mantle structure by full waveform tomography with the spectral element method 799-831, 2011.

C. E. Lesher and . Davis, , 2005.

B. Li, R. C. Liebermann, and D. J. Weidner, P-V-Vp-Vs-T measurements on wadsleyite to 7 GPa and 873 K: Implications for the 410-km seismic discontinuity, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.106, issue.B12, pp.30579-30591, 2001.

B. Li, J. Kung, and R. C. Liebermann, Modern techniques in measuring elasticity of Earth materials at high pressure and high temperature using ultrasonic interferometry in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation in multi-anvil apparatus, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.143, pp.559-574, 2004.

B. Li and R. C. Liebermann, Indoor seismology by probing the Earth's interior by using sound velocity measurements at high pressures and temperatures, vol.104, pp.9145-9150, 2007.

L. Li, D. Weidner, P. Raterron, J. Chen, and M. Vaughan, Stress measurements of deforming olivine at high pressure, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.143, pp.357-367, 2004.

L. Li, R. M. Wentzcovitch, D. J. Weidner, and C. R. Da-silva, Vibrational and thermodynamic properties of forsterite at mantle conditions, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 2007.

R. C. Liebermann, Multi-anvil , high pressure apparatus : a half-century of development and progress High Pressure Research, vol.31, pp.493-532, 2011.

. Liebfried, Warmleitund in elektrische isolierenden Kristallen. Nachrichten aus Gesundheitswesen Wissenschaften Goettingen Mathematik und Physik, 1954.

W. Liu, J. Kung, and B. Li, Elasticity of San Carlos olivine to 8 GPa and 1073 K, Geophysical Research Letters, issue.16, p.32, 2005.

D. Lizarralde, A. Chave, G. Hirth, and A. Schultz, Northeastern Pacific mantle conductivity profile from long-period magnetotelluric sounding using Hawaii-to-California submarine cable data, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.100, issue.B9, pp.17837-17854, 1995.

S. S. Lobanov, N. Holtgrewe, and A. F. Goncharov, Reduced radiative conductivity of low spin FeO6-octahedra in FeCO3 at high pressure and temperature, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.449, pp.20-25, 2016.

A. E. Love, A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, p.104, 1927.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01307751

R. K. Lowry, P. Henderson, and J. Nolan, Mineralogy and Tracer Diffusion of Some Alkali , Alkaline-Earth and Transition Element Ions in a Basaltic and an Andesitic Melt, and the Implications Concerning Melt Structure, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol, vol.80, pp.254-261, 1982.

H. Lubimova, Variable Thermal Conductivity of its Mantle, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc, vol.I, pp.115-134, 1958.

G. J. Macdonald, Calculations on the Thermal History of the Earth, 1959.

W. J. Malfait, R. Seifert, S. Petitgirard, M. Mezouar, and C. Sanchez-valle, The density of andesitic melts and the compressibility of dissolved water in silicate melts at crustal and upper mantle conditions, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.393, pp.31-38, 2014.

M. A. Manthilake, T. Matsuzaki, T. Yoshino, S. Yamashita, E. Ito et al., Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite as a function of temperature and water content, Phys. Earth. Planet. Inter, vol.174, issue.1-4, pp.10-18, 2009.

G. M. Manthilake, N. De-koker, D. J. Frost, and C. A. Mccammon, Lattice thermal conductivity of lower mantle minerals and heat flux from Earth's core, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.108, pp.17901-17904, 2011.

G. Manthilake, M. Mookherjee, N. Bolfan-casanova, and D. Andrault, Electrical conductivity of lawsonite and dehydrating fluids at high pressures and temperatures, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.42, pp.7398-7405, 2015.

G. Manthilake, N. Bolfan-casanova, D. Novella, M. Mookherjee, and D. Andrault, Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges, Sci. Adv, vol.2, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01313495

G. Manthilake, J. Chantel, J. Monteux, D. Andrault, M. A. Bouhifd et al., Thermal conductivity of FeS and its implications for Mercury's long sustaining magnetic field, Journal of Geophysical Research, 2019.

L. Martinek, Thèse. Effet de la fugacité d'oxygene sur le stockage des fluids C et H dans le manteaux terrestre, 2019.

L. Martinek and N. Bolfan-casanova, Water quantification in olivine and wadsleyite by Raman spectroscopy and study of errors and uncertainties, American Mineralogist

F. J. Martinez-moreno, Detection and characterization pf kartstic caves: integration of geological and geophysical techniques, 2015.

W. P. Mason and H. J. Mcskimin, attenuation and scattering of high frequency sound waves in metals and glasses, J. Acous, vol.19, 1947.

K. N. Matsukage, Z. Jing, and S. Karato, Density of hydrous silicate melt at the conditions of Earth's deep upper mantle, Nature, vol.438, pp.488-91, 2005.

J. Maumus, N. Bagdassarov, and H. Schmeling, Electrical conductivity and partial melting of mafic rocks under pressure, Geochemica Cosmochimica Acta, vol.69, pp.4703-4178, 2005.

G. Mavko, E. Kjartansson, and K. Winkler, Seismic wave atteuation in rocks, Rev. Geophys. Sp. physicse, vol.17, pp.1155-1164, 1979.

G. Mavko, Velocity and attenuation in partially molten rocks, J Geophys Res, vol.85, pp.5173-5189, 1980.

D. Mckenzie and M. J. Bickle, The Volume and Composition of Melt Generated by Extension of the Lithosphere, J. Petrol, vol.29, pp.625-679, 1988.

D. Mckenzie and R. K. O&apos;nions, Partial melt distribution from inversion of rare earth element concentrations, J. Petrol, vol.32, pp.1021-1091, 1991.

H. J. Mcskimin, Ultrasonic measurement techniques applicable to small solid specimens, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol.22, issue.4, pp.413-418, 1950.

R. S. Mcwilliams, Z. Konôpková, and A. F. Goncharov, A flash heating method for measuring thermal conductivity at high pressure and temperature: Application to Pt, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.247, pp.17-26, 2015.

E. Médard and T. L. Grove, The effect of H2O on the olivine liquidus of basaltic melts: Experiments and thermodynamic models, Contrib. to Mineral. Petrol, vol.155, pp.417-432, 2008.

E. Médard, C. A. Mccammon, J. A. Barr, and T. L. Grove, Oxygen fugacity, temperature reproducibility, and H2O contents of nominally anhydrous piston-cylinder experiments using graphite capsules, Am. Mineral, vol.93, pp.1838-1844, 2008.

H. Mehling, G. Hautzinger, O. Nilsson, J. Fricke, R. Hofmann et al., Thermal diffusivity of semitransparent materials determined by the laser-flash method applying a new analytical model, International Journal of Thermophysics, vol.19, issue.3, pp.941-949, 1998.

J. C. Mercier, Structure des péridotites en enclaves dans quelques basaltes d'Europe et d'Hawaii. Regards sur la constitution du manteau supérieur, vol.229, 1972.

J. C. Mercier and A. Nicolas, Textures and fabrics of upper-mantle peridotites as illustrated by xenoliths from basalts, Journal of Petrology, vol.16, issue.1, pp.454-487, 1975.

M. Mercier, A. Muro, . Di, N. Métrich, D. Giordano et al., Spectroscopic analysis (FTIR, Raman) of water in mafic and intermediate glasses and glass inclusions, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.74, pp.5641-5656, 2010.

J. D. Merriman, A. G. Whittington, A. M. Hofmeister, P. I. Nabelek, and K. Benn, Thermal transport properties of major Archean rock types to high temperature and implications for cratonic geotherms, Precambrian Research, vol.233, pp.358-372, 2013.

K. Mibe, T. Fujii, and A. Yasuda, Connectivity of aqueous fluid in the Earth's upper mantle, Geo. Res. Lett, vol.25, pp.1233-1236, 1998.

K. Mibe, T. Fujii, and A. Yasuda, Control of the location of the volcanic front in island arcs by aqueous fluid connectivity in the mantle wedge, Nature, vol.401, pp.259-262, 1999.

P. J. Michael, The concentration, behavior and storage of H20 in the suboceanic upper mantle: Implications for mantle metasomatism, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.52, pp.555-566, 1988.

K. Mierdel, H. Keppler, J. R. Smyth, and F. Langenhorst, Water Solubility in Aluminous Orthopyroxene and the Origin of Earth's Asthenosphere. Science (80), vol.315, pp.364-368, 2007.

W. G. Minarik and E. B. Watson, Interconnectivity of carbonate melt at low melt fraction, Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.133, issue.3-4, p.85, 1995.

M. Mookherjee, L. Stixrude, and B. Karki, Hydrous silicate melt at high pressure, Nature, vol.452, pp.983-986, 2008.

M. Mookherjee and S. Karato, Solubility of water in pyrope-rich garnet at high pressures and temperature, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.37, pp.1-5, 2010.

J. Montagner and B. L. Kennett, How to reconcile body-wave and normal-mode reference earth models Geophys, J. Int, vol.125, pp.229-248, 1996.

J. Monteux, Modélisation numerique de la formation du noyau terrestre: contribution des impacts météoritiques, 2009.

J. P. Morgan and W. J. Morgan, Two-stage melting and the geochemical evolution of the mantle : a recipe for mantle plum-pudding, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.170, pp.215-239, 1999.

C. C. Mourtada-bonnefoi and D. Laporte, Homogeneous bubble nucleation in rhyolitic magmas: an experimental study of the effect of H2O and CO2, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.107, issue.B4, p.2, 2002.

M. Murakami, A. F. Goncharov, N. Hirao, R. Masuda, T. Mitsui et al., Highpressure radiative conductivity of dense silicate glasses with potential implications for dark magmas, Nat. Commun, vol.5, p.5428, 2014.

T. Murase and A. R. Mcbirney, Properties of Some Common Igneous Rocks and Their Melts Properties of Some Common Igneous Rocks and Their Melts at High Temperatures, America Bulletin, vol.84, issue.11, pp.3563-3592, 1973.

G. E. Murch, V. B. Naumov, V. A. Dorofeeva, A. V. Girnis, and V. V. Yarmolyuk, Comparison of major, volatile, and trace element contents in the melts of mid-ocean ridges on the basis of data on inclusions in minerals and quenched glasses of rocks, Solid State Ionics, vol.7, issue.3, p.73, 1982.

S. Neal, R. L. Mackie, J. C. Larsen, and A. Schultz, Variations in the electrical conductivity of the upper mantle beneath North America and the Pacific Ocean, vol.105, pp.8229-8242, 2000.

D. R. Neuville, P. Courtial, D. B. Dingwell, and P. Richet, Thermodynamic and rheological properties of rhyolite and andesite melts, pp.572-581, 1993.

H. Ni, H. Keppler, and H. Behrens, Electrical conductivity of hydrous basaltic melts: implications for partial melting in the upper mantle, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol, vol.162, issue.3, pp.637-650, 2011.

H. Nielser and I. Jackson, Pressure derivatives of elastic wave velocities from ultrasonic interferometric measurements on jacketed polycrystals, J. Acoust. Soc. Am, vol.86, pp.1573-1585, 1989.

M. Nishi, T. Irifune, J. Tsuchiya, Y. Tange, Y. Nishihara et al., Stability of hydrous silicate at high pressures and water transport to the deep lower mantle, Nature, 2014.

Y. Nishihara, K. N. Matsukage, and S. Karato, Effects of metal protection coils on thermocouple EMF in multi-anvil high-pressure experiments, Am. Mineral, vol.91, pp.111-114, 2006.

G. Nolet, S. I. Karato, and R. Montelli, Plume fluxes from seismic tomography, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.248, issue.3-4, pp.685-699, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00407617

D. Novella and D. J. Frost, The composition of hydrous partial melts of garnet peridotite at 6GPa: Implications for the origin of group II Kimberlites, J. Petrol, vol.55, pp.2097-2124, 2014.

D. Novella, D. J. Frost, E. H. Hauri, H. Bureau, C. Raepsaet et al., The distribution of H2O between silicate melt and nominally anhydrous peridotite and the onset of hydrous melting in the deep upper mantle, Earth Planet Sci Lett, vol.400, pp.1-13, 2014.

D. Novella, D. Dolej?, R. Myhill, M. G. Pamato, G. Manthilake et al., Melting phase relations in the systems Mg2SiO4-H2O and MgSiO3-H2O and the formation of hydrous melts in the upper mantle, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.204, pp.68-82, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01636041

D. Novella, B. Jacobsen, P. K. Weber, J. A. Tyburczy, F. J. Ryerson et al., Hydrogen selfdiffusion in single crystal olivine and electrical conductivity of the Earth's mantle, Sci. Rep, vol.7, pp.1-10, 2017.

R. J. O&apos;connell and B. Budiansky, Seismic velocities in dry and saturated cracked solids, J. Geophys. Res, vol.79, issue.35, pp.5412-5426, 1974.

H. O&apos;neil, C. St, and V. J. Wall, The Olivine-Orthopyroxene-Spinel Oxygen Geobarometer , the Nickel Precipitation Curve , and the Oxygen Fugacity of the Earth ' s Upper Mantle, J. Petrol, vol.28, pp.1169-1191, 1987.

S. Y. O&apos;reilly and W. L. Griffin, The continental lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary: Can we sample it?, Lithos, vol.120, pp.1-13, 2010.

J. G. O&apos;rourke and D. J. Stevenson, Powering Earth's dynamo with magnesium precipitation from the core, Nature, vol.529, issue.7586, p.387, 2016.

J. G. O&apos;rourke, J. Korenaga, and D. J. Stevenson, Thermal evolution of Earth with magnesium precipitation in the core, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.458, pp.263-272, 2017.

I. Ochs, F. A. Lange, and R. A. , The partial molar volume, thermal expansivity, and compressibility of H 2 O in NaAlSi 3 O 8 liquid: new measurements and an internally consistent model, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, vol.129, issue.2-3, pp.155-165, 1997.

F. A. Ochs and R. A. Lange, The Density of Hydrous Magmatic Liquids. Science (80-. ), vol.283, pp.1314-1317, 1999.

K. Ohta, Electrical and thermal conductivity of the Earth ' s lower mantle, 2010.

K. Ohta, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, K. Hirose, T. Komabayashi et al., Lattice thermal conductivity of MgSiO3 perovskite and post-perovskite at the core-mantle boundary, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.349, issue.350, 2012.

A. Ohtani, A. Onodera, and N. Kawai, Pressure apparatus of split-octahedron type for X-ray-diffraction studies, Rev. Sci. Instrum, vol.50, issue.3, pp.308-315, 1979.

E. Ohtani, Y. Nagata, A. Suzuki, and T. Kato, Melting relations of peridotite and the density crossover in planetary mantles, Chem. Geol, vol.120, pp.207-221, 1995.

E. Ohtani, K. Litasov, T. Hosoya, T. Kubo, and T. Kondo, Water transport into the deep mantle and formation of a hydrous transition zone, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.143, pp.255-269, 2004.

S. Okumura and N. Hirano, Carbon dioxide emission to earth's surface by deep-sea volcanism, Geology, vol.41, issue.11, pp.1167-1170, 2013.

N. Olsen, The electrical conductivity of the mantle beneath Europe derived from C-responses from 3 to 270 hr, R. Astron. Soc, vol.133, pp.298-308, 1998.

N. Olsen, Long-period (30 days-1 year) electromagnetic sounding and the electrical conductivity of the lower mantle beneath Europe, Geophysical Journal International, vol.138, issue.1, pp.179-187, 1999.

K. Omura, Change of electrical conductivity of olivine associated with the olivine-spinel transition, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.65, issue.3-5, pp.292-307, 1991.

M. Osako, E. Ito, and A. Yoneda, Simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity for garnet and olivine under high pressure, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.143, pp.311-320, 2004.

M. G. Pamato, R. Myhill, T. Boffa-ballaran, D. J. Frost, F. Heidelbach et al., Lower-mantle water reservoir implied by the extreme stability of a hydrous aluminosilicate, Nat. Geosci, vol.8, pp.75-79, 2014.

E. P. Papadakis, The measurement of ultrasonic velocity, Physical acoustics, vol.19, pp.81-106, 1990.

W. Parker, R. Jenkins, C. Butler, and G. Abbott, Flash Method of determining thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity, J. Appl. Phys, vol.32, pp.1679-1684, 1961.

D. G. Pearson, F. E. Brenker, F. Nestola, J. Mcneill, L. Nasdala et al., Hydrous mantle transition zone indicated by ringwoodite included within diamond, Nature, vol.507, pp.221-224, 2014.

R. Peierls, Zur kinetischen theorie der wärmeleitung in kristallen, Annalen der Physik, vol.395, issue.8, pp.1055-1101, 1929.

R. Peierls, Zur theorie der galvanomagnetischen effekte, Zeitschrift für Physik, vol.53, issue.3-4, pp.255-266, 1929.

G. Pesce, Experimental investingation of deep earth's mantle melting properties, 2016.

M. Petermann and A. M. Hofmeister, Thermal diffusivity of olivine-group minerals, American Mineralogist, vol.91, pp.1747-1760, 2006.

T. Pfeiffer, Viscosities and electrical conductivities of oxidic glass-forming melts, Solid State Ion, vol.105, issue.1, p.475, 1998.

M. Planck, . Pa, T. Plank, and C. H. Langmuir, Effects of the melting regime on the composition of the oceanic crust, J Geophys. Res, vol.97, issue.B13, pp.19749-19770, 1914.

B. T. Poe, C. Romano, F. Nestola, and J. R. Smyth, Electrical conductivity anisotropy of dry and hydrous olivine at 8GPa. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.181, pp.103-111, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00660106

A. Pommier, F. Gaillard, M. Pichavant, and B. Scaillet, Laboratory measurements of electrical conductivities of hydrous and dry Mount Vesuvius melts under pressure, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.113, pp.1-16, 2008.

A. Pommier and E. J. Garnero, Petrology-based modeling of mantle melt electrical conductivity and joint interpretation of electromagnetic and seismic results, J. Geophys. Res. Solid. Earth, vol.119, pp.4001-4016, 2014.

A. Pommier, K. Leinenweber, D. L. Kohlstedt, C. Qi, E. J. Garnero et al., Experimental constraints on the electrical anisotropy of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system, Nature, vol.522, issue.7555, pp.202-206, 2015.

D. C. Presnall, C. L. Simmons, and H. Porath, Changes in electrical conductivity of a synthetic basalt during melting, J. Geophys. Res, vol.77, issue.29, p.5665, 1972.

C. Püthe, A. Kuvshinov, A. Khan, and N. Olsen, A new model of Earth's radial conductivity structure derived from over 10 yr of satellite and observatory magnetic data. Geophysical Supplements to the, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol.203, issue.3, pp.1864-1872, 2015.

H. Reichmann and S. Jacobsen, High-pressure elasticity of a natural magnetite crystal, Am. Mineral, vol.89, pp.1061-1066, 2004.

J. Revenaugh and S. Sipkin, Seismic evidance for silicate melt atop the 410-km mantle discontinuity, Nature, vol.369, pp.474-476, 1994.

G. Richard, D. Bercovici, and S. Karato, Slab dehydration in the Earth's mantle transition zone, EPSL, vol.251, pp.156-167, 2006.

P. Richet and G. Fiquet, High-Temperature Heat Capacity and Premelting of Minerals in the System MgO-CaO-A1203-SiO2, J. Geophys. Res, vol.96, pp.445-456, 1991.

S. Rigden, J. Ahrens, and E. M. Stolper, Shock compression of molten silicate results for a model basaltic composition, J. Geophys. Res, vol.93, pp.367-382, 1988.

T. Rikitake, Note on the electromagnetic induction within the Earth, Bull. Earthq. Res, Inst, vol.24, pp.1-9, 1948.

T. Rikitake, Electromagnetic induction within the Earth and its relation to the electrical state of the earth's interior part I-IV Bull, Earthq. Res, Inst, pp.28-29, 1951.

A. E. Ringwood, Composition and Petrology of the Earth's Mantle. MacGraw-Hill, vol.618, 1975.

A. E. Ringwood, Phase transformations and their bearing on the constitution and dynamics of the mantle, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.55, 1991.

M. L. Rivers and I. S. Carmichael, Ultrasonic studies of silicate melts, J. Geophys. Res, vol.92, pp.9247-9270, 1987.

J. J. Roberts and J. A. Tyburczy, Partial-melt electrical conductivity: influence of melt composition, J. Geophys. Res, vol.104, issue.B4, p.7055, 1999.

C. Romano, B. T. Poe, N. Kreidie, and C. A. Mccammon, Electrical conductivities of pyrope-almandine garnets up to 19 GPa and 1700°C, Am. Mineral, vol.91, pp.1371-1377, 2006.

B. Romanowicz, A global tomographic model of shear attenuationin the upper mantle, J. Geophys. Res, vol.100, issue.B7, p.12375, 1995.

W. L. Romine, A. G. Whittington, P. I. Nabelek, and A. M. Hofmeister, Thermal diffusivity of rhyolitic glasses and melts : effects of temperature, crystals and dissolved water, pp.2273-2287, 2012.

R. G. Ross, P. Andersson, B. Sundqvist, and G. Backstrom, Thermal conductivity of solids and liquids under pressure, Reports on Progress in Physics, vol.47, issue.10, p.1347, 1984.

M. Roufosse and P. G. Klemens, Thermal Conductivity of Complex Dielectric Crystals, Physical Review B -Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol.7, 1973.

L. Rüpke, J. P. Morgan, and J. E. Dixon, Implications of Subduction Rehydration for Earth ' s Deep Water Cycle, pp.263-276, 2006.

A. E. Saal, E. H. Hauri, C. H. Langmuir, and M. R. Perfit, Vapour under saturation in primitive mid-oceanridge basalt and the volatile contentof Earth's upper mantle, Nature, vol.419, issue.6906, pp.451-455, 2002.

K. Saemundsson, Geology of the Krafla system (in Icelandic), Náttúra Mývatns (The Natural History of Lake Mývatn), pp.24-95, 1991.

D. L. Sahagian and A. A. Proussevitch, 3D particle size distributionsfrom 2D observations: stereology for natural applications, J.Volcanol. Geotherm Res, vol.84, issue.3, pp.43-45, 1998.

T. Sakamaki, A. Suzuki, and E. Ohtani, Stability of hydrous melt at the base of the Earth's upper mantle, Nature, vol.439, pp.192-194, 2006.

T. Sakamaki, E. Ohtani, S. Urakawa, A. Suzuki, and Y. Katayama, Measurement of hydrous peridotite magma density at high pressure using the X-ray absorption method, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.287, pp.293-297, 2009.

T. Sakamaki, E. Ohtani, S. Urakawa, A. Suzuki, and Y. Katayama, Density of dry peridotite magma at high pressure using an X-ray absorption method, Am. Mineral, vol.95, pp.144-147, 2010.

V. Salters and S. R. Hart, The hafnium paradox and the role of garnet in the source of mid-ocean-ridge basalts, Nature, vol.342, p.420, 1989.

M. Sambridge and K. Mosegaard, , 2002.

, Monte Carlo methods in geophysical inverse problems, Reviews of Geophysics, vol.40, issue.3, pp.3-4

H. Sato, I. S. Sacks, T. Murase, G. Muncill, and H. Fukuyama, Qp-melting temperature relation in peridotite at high pressure and temperature: attenuation mechanism and implications for the mechanical properties of the upper mantle, J. Geophys. Res, vol.94, issue.B8, p.10647, 1989.

A. J. Schaeffer and M. G. Bostock, A low-velocity zone atop the transition zone in northwestern Canada, J. Geophys. Res, vol.115, p.6302, 2010.

G. H. Schärmeli, Anisotropy of olivine thermal conductivity at 2.5 GPa and up to 1500°K measured on opticammy non-thick samples, 1982.

F. Schiavi, N. Bolfan-casanova, A. C. Withers, E. Médard, M. Laumonier et al., Water quanti fi cation in silicate glasses by Raman spectroscopy : Correcting for the e ff ects of confocality , density and ferric iron, J. Chem. Geo, 2018.

B. Schmandt, S. D. Jacobsen, T. W. Becker, . Liu, and K. Dueker, Dehydration melting at the top of the lower mantle, Science, vol.344, pp.1265-1268, 2014.

H. Schmeling, Numerical models on the influence of partial melton elastic, anelastic and electrical properties of rocks, Part II: electrical conductivity. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.43, issue.2, pp.90080-90084, 1986.

N. Schmerr, The Gutenberg discontinuity: melt at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, Science, vol.335, issue.6075, pp.1480-1483, 2012.

R. N. Schock, A. G. Duba, and T. J. Shankland, Electrical conduction in olivine, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.94, issue.B5, pp.5829-5839, 1989.

D. R. Sempolinski and W. D. Kingery, Ionic conductivity and magnesium vacancy mobility in magnesium oxide, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.63, pp.664-669, 1980.

T. J. Shankland and H. S. Waff, Partial melting and electrical conductivity anomalies in the upper mantle, J. Geophys. Res, vol.82, issue.33, pp.5409-5417, 1977.

T. J. Shankland, U. Nitsan, and A. G. Duba, Optical absorption and radiative heat transport in olivine at high temperature, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.84, issue.B4, pp.1603-1610, 1979.

H. R. Shaw, Obsidian-H2O viscosities at 1000 and 2000 bars in the temperature range 700° to 900° C, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.68, issue.23, pp.6337-6343, 1963.

T. Shea, B. F. Houghton, L. Gurioli, K. V. Cashman, J. E. Hammer et al., Textural studies of vesicles in volcanic rocks: an integrated methodology, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res, vol.190, issue.3-4, pp.271-289, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00530849

P. M. Shearer, Transition zone velocity gradients and the 520-km discontinuity, J Geo. Res, vol.101, pp.3053-3066, 1996.

H. Shimizu, H. Utada, K. Baba, T. Koyama, M. Obayashi et al., Three-dimensional imaging of electrical conductivity in the mantle transition zone beneath the North Pacific Ocean by a semi-global induction study, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.183, issue.1-2, pp.252-269, 2010.

D. Sifré, E. Gardés, M. Massuyeau, L. Hashim, S. Hier-majumder et al., Electrical conductivity during incipient melting in the oceanic low-velocity zone, Nature, vol.509, issue.7498, pp.81-85, 2014.

O. I. Silaeva and O. G. Shamina, Propagation of elastic pulses in cylindrical specimens, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz, vol.1, pp.32-35, 1958.

N. A. Simmons, A. M. Forte, L. Boschi, and S. P. Grand, GyPSuM : A joint tomographic model of mantle density and seismic wave speeds, vol.115, pp.1-24, 2010.

K. Simons, J. Dixon, J. Schilling, R. Kingsley, and R. Poreda, Volatiles in basaltic glasses from the Easter-Salas y Gomez Seamount Chain and Easter Microplate: Implications for geochemical cycling of volatile elements, Geochemistry, Geophys. Geosystems, vol.3, pp.1-29, 2002.

T. W. Sisson and T. L. Grove, Experimental investigations of the role of H2O in calc-alkaline differentiation and subduction zone magmatism, Contrib. to Mineral. Petrol, vol.113, pp.143-166, 1993.

G. A. Slack, Thermal Conductivity of MgO, Al 2 O 3, Mg Al 2 O 4, and Fe 3 O 4 Crystals from 3° to 300° K, Physical Review, vol.126, issue.2, p.427, 1962.

G. A. Slack and D. W. Oliver, Thermal conductivity of garnets and phonon scattering by rare-earth ions, Physical Review B, vol.4, issue.2, p.592, 1971.

J. R. Smyth and S. D. Jacobsen, Nominally Anhydrous Minerals and Earth's Deep Water Cycle, Geophysical Monograph Series, 2006.

A. G. Sokol, Y. N. Palyanov, and I. N. Kupriyanov, Effect of oxygen fugacity on the H 2 O storage capacity of forsterite in the carbon-saturated systems, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.74, pp.4793-4806, 2010.

A. T. Song, . .-r, D. V. Helmberger, and S. P. Grand, Low-velocity zone atop the 410-km seismic discontinuity in the northwestern United States, Nature, vol.427, pp.530-533, 2004.

V. Soustelle and G. Manthilake, Deformation of olivine-orthopyroxene aggregates at high pressure and temperature: implications for the seismic properties of the asthenosphere, Tectonophysics, vol.694, pp.385-399, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01636037

,. F. Spera and J. , Physical properties of magma, 2000.

S. Speziale, C. S. Zha, T. S. Duffy, R. J. Hemley, and H. K. Mao, Quasi-hydrostatic compression of magnesium oxide to 52 GPa: Implications for the pressure-volume-temperature equation of state, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.106, issue.B1, pp.515-528, 2001.

L. Stixrude and C. Lithgow-bertelloni, Mineralogy and elasticity of the oceanic upper mantle: origin of the low-velocity zone, J. Geophys. Res. B Solid Earth, vol.110, issue.3, pp.1-16, 2005.

A. Suzuki, E. Ohtani, and T. Kato, Density and thermal expansion of a peridotite melt at high pressure, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.107, pp.53-61, 1998.

A. Suzuki and E. Ohtani, Density of peridotite melts at high pressure, Phys. Chem. Miner, vol.30, pp.449-456, 2003.

Y. Takei, Constitutive mechanical relations of solid-liquid composites in terms of grain-boundary contiguity, J. Geophys. Res, vol.103, issue.B8, pp.18183-18203, 1998.

Y. Takei, Acoustic properties of partially molten media studied on a simple binary system with a controllable dihedral angle, J. Geophys. Res, vol.105, issue.B7, p.16665, 2000.

Y. Takei, Effect of pore geometry on VP/VS: from equilibrium geometry to crack, J. Geophys. Res, vol.107, issue.B2, p.2043, 2002.

P. Tarits, Water in the mantle: Results from electrical conductivity beneath the French Alps, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.31, pp.749-752, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01298769

H. Taura, H. Yurimoto, K. Kurita, and S. Sueno, Pressure dependence on partition coefficients for trace elements between olivine and the coexisting melts, Phys. Chem. Miner, vol.25, pp.469-484, 1998.

B. Tauzin, E. Debayle, and G. Wittlinger, Seismic evidence for a global low-velocity layer within the Earth's upper mantle, Nat. Geosci, vol.3, pp.718-721, 2010.

B. Tauzin, R. D. Van-der-hilst, G. Wittlinger, and Y. Ricard, Multiple transition zone seismic discontinuities and low velocity layers below western United States, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, vol.118, pp.2307-2322, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00853673

S. M. Ten-grotenhuis, M. R. Drury, C. J. Spiers, and C. J. Peach, Melt distribution in olivine rocks based on electrical conductivity measurements, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, vol.110, issue.12, pp.1-11, 2005.

R. D. Van-der-hilst, M. V. De-hoop, P. Wang, S. H. Shim, P. Ma et al., Seismostratigraphy and thermal structure of Earth's core-mantle boundary region, Science, issue.5820, pp.1813-1817, 2007.

V. Bargen, N. Waff, and H. S. , Permeabilities, interfacial areas and curvatures of partially molten systems: results of numerical computations of equilibrium microstructures, J. Geophys. Res, vol.91, pp.9261-9276, 1986.

L. Vinnik and V. Farra, Low S velocity atop the 410-km discontinuity and mantle plumes, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.262, pp.398-412, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00337473

H. S. Waff, Theoretical consideration of electrical conductivity in a partially molten mantle and implications for geothermometry, J. Geophys. Res, vol.79, issue.26, pp.4003-4010, 1974.

H. S. Waff and D. Weill, Electical conductivity of magmatic liquids: effects of temperature, oxygen fugacity and composition, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.28, pp.254-260, 1975.

H. S. Waff and J. R. Blau, Experimental determination of near equilibrium textures in partially molten silicates at high pressures, High pressure research in geophysics, pp.229-236, 1982.

H. S. Waff and U. H. Faul, Effects of crystalline anisotropy on fluid distribution in ultramafic partial melts, J. Geophys. Res, vol.97, issue.B6, p.9003, 1992.

L. Wagner, D. W. Forsyth, M. J. Fouch, and D. E. James, Detailed three-dimensional shear wave velocity structure of the northwestern United States from Rayleigh wave tomography, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.299, issue.3-4, pp.273-284, 2010.

M. Wakatsuki, K. Ichinose, and T. Aoki, Characteristics of link-type cubic anvil, high pressure-high temperature apparatus, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys, vol.10, issue.3, pp.357-366, 1971.

M. Wakatsuki and K. Ichinose, A wedge-type cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus and its application to materials synthesis research, High-Pressure Research in Geophysics, pp.13-26, 1982.

D. Walker, M. A. Carpenter, and .. M. Hitch, Some simplifications to multianvil devices for high-pressure experiments, Am. Mineral, vol.75, issue.9, pp.1020-1028, 1990.

D. Walker, Lubrication, gasketing, and precision in multianvil experiments, Am. Mineral, vol.76, issue.7-8, pp.1092-1100, 1991.

M. J. Walter, Melting of Garnet Peridotite and the Origin of Komatiite and Depleted Lithosphere, J. Petrol, vol.39, pp.29-60, 1998.

B. J. Wanamaker and A. G. Duba, Electrical conductivity of San Carlos olivine along [100] under oxygenand pyroxene-buffered conditions and implications for defect equilibria, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.98, issue.B1, pp.489-500, 1993.

B. J. Wanamaker and A. G. Duba, Electrical conductivity of polycrystalline olivine containing a silicate glass, Geophysical research letters, vol.20, issue.19, pp.2107-2110, 1993.

D. Wang, M. Mookherjee, Y. Xu, and S. I. Karato, The effect of water on the electrical conductivity of olivine, Nature, vol.443, issue.7114, p.977, 2006.

W. Wang and E. Takahashi, Subsolidus and melting experiments of K-doped peridotite KLB-1 to 27 GPa: Its geophysical and geochemical implications, J. Geophys. Res, vol.105, pp.2855-2868, 2000.

T. Watanabe, Effects of water and melt on seismic velocities and their application to characterization of seismic reflectors, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.20, p.2933, 1993.

T. Watanabe and K. Kurita, The relationship between electrical conductivity and melt fraction in a partially molten simple system: Archie's law behavior, Physics of the earth and planetary interiors, vol.78, issue.1-2, pp.9-17, 1993.

E. B. Watson, Zircon saturation in felsic liquids: experimental results and applications to trace element geochemistry, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, vol.70, issue.4, pp.407-419, 1979.

E. B. Watson, J. M. Brenan, and D. R. Baker, Continental Mantle, 1991.

R. Widmer, G. Masters, and F. Gilbert, Spherically symmetric attenuation within the Earth from normal mode data, Geophys. J. Int, vol.104, issue.3, pp.541-553, 1991.

B. J. Wood and J. D. Blundy, A predictive model for rare earth element partitioning between clinopyroxene and anhydrous silicate melt, Contrib. to Mineral. Petrol, vol.129, pp.166-181, 1997.

B. J. Wood and J. D. Blundy, The effect of H2O on crystal-melt partitioning of trace elements, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol.66, pp.3647-3656, 2002.

R. K. Workman and S. R. Hart, Major and trace element composition of the depleted MORB mantle (DMM), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.231, pp.53-72, 2005.

Y. Xiong and S. A. Wood, Experimental determination of the solubility of ReO 2 and the dominant oxidation state of rhenium in hydrothermal solutions, Chemical Geology, vol.158, pp.245-256, 1999.

Y. Xu, B. T. Poe, T. J. Shankland, and D. C. Rubie, Electrical conductivity of olivine, wadsleyite, and ringwoodite under upper-mantle conditions, Science, vol.280, issue.5368, pp.1415-1418, 1998.

Y. Xu and T. J. Shankland, Electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene and its high pressure phases, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.26, issue.17, pp.2645-2648, 1999.

Y. Xu, T. J. Shankland, S. Linhardt, D. C. Rubie, F. Lagnenhorst et al., Thermal diffusivity and conductivity of olivine, wadsleyite and ringwoodite to 20 GPa and 1373 K, Phys Earth Planet Inter, pp.321-336, 2004.

T. Yagi, Y. Ida, Y. Sato, and S. Akimoto, Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the lattice parameters ofFe2SiO4 olivine up to 70 kbar, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.10, pp.348-354, 1975.

D. Yamazaki, E. Ito, T. Yoshino, N. Tsujino, A. Yoneda et al., Over 1Mbar generation in the Kawai-type multianvil apparatus and its application to compression of (Mg0.92Fe0.08)SiO3 perovskite and stishovite, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, vol.228, pp.262-267, 2014.

B. Yan, E. .. Graham, and K. Furlong, Lateral variations in upper mantle thermal structure inferred from three-dimentional seismic inversion models, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.16, pp.449-452, 1989.

X. Yang, H. Keppler, C. Mccammon, H. Ni, Q. Xia et al., Effect of water on the electrical conductivity of lower crustal clinopyroxene, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, issue.B4, p.116, 2011.

X. Yang, Orientation-related electrical conductivity of hydrous olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase and implications for the structure of the lower continental crust and uppermost mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, pp.241-250, 2012.

T. Yoshino, M. J. Walter, and T. Katsura, Connectivity of molten Fe alloy in peridotite based on in situ electrical conductivity measurements: implications for core formation in terrestrial planets, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.222, issue.2, pp.625-643, 2004.

T. Yoshino, Y. Takei, D. Wark, and E. B. Watson, Grain boundary wetness of texturally equilibrated rocks, with implications for seismic properties of the upper mantle, J. Geophys. Res. B Solid Earth, vol.110, issue.8, pp.1-16, 2005.

T. Yoshino, T. Matsuzaki, S. Yamashita, and T. Katsura, Hydrous olivine unable to account for conductivity anomaly at the top of the asthenosphere, Nature, vol.443, issue.7114, p.973, 2006.

T. Yoshino, Y. Nishihara, and S. I. Karato, Complete wetting of olivine grain boundaries by a hydrous melt near the mantle transition zone, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.256, issue.3-4, pp.466-472, 2007.

T. Yoshino, G. Manthilake, T. Matsuzaki, and T. Katsura, Dry mantle transition zone inferred from the conductivity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite, vol.451, pp.1-4, 2008.

T. Yoshino and T. Katsura, Effect of iron content on electrical conductivity of ringwoodite, with implications for electrical structure in the transition zone, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol.174, issue.1-4, pp.3-9, 2009.

T. Yoshino, D. Yamazaki, and K. Mibe, Well-wetted olivine grain boundaries in partially molten peridotite in the asthenosphere, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.283, issue.1-4, pp.167-173, 2009.

T. Yoshino, M. Laumonier, E. Mcisaac, and T. Katsura, Electrical conductivity of basaltic and carbonatite melt-bearing peridotites at high pressures: implications for melt distribution and melt fraction in the upper mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.295, issue.3-4, pp.593-602, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-00491462

T. Yoshino, Laboratory Electrical Conductivity Measurement of Mantle Minerals, Surv. Geophys, vol.31, pp.163-206, 2010.

T. Yoshino and T. Katsura, Re-evaluation of electrical conductivity of anhydrous and hydrous wadsleyite, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.337, pp.56-67, 2012.

C. J. Young and T. Lay, The core shadow zone boundary and lateral variations of the P velocity structure of the lowermost mantle, Physics of the earth and planetary interiors, vol.54, issue.1-2, pp.64-81, 1989.

A. Zeitlin and J. Brayman, Ultra-high-pressure calibration: Influence of cubic workpiece configuration, pp.301-320, 1963.

B. Zhang, T. Yoshino, D. Yamazaki, G. Manthilake, and T. Katsura, Electrical conductivity anisotropy in partially molten peridotite under shear deformation, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, vol.05, pp.98-109, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01130371

Y. Zhang, H. Ni, and Y. Chen, Diffusion data in silicate melts, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol.72, issue.1, pp.311-408, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00682828

D. Zhao, Global tomographic images of mantle plumes and subducting slabs : insight into deep, Earth dynamics, vol.146, pp.3-34, 2004.

B. Figure, 19 Orientation of long axis for each phase derived from FOAMS analysis for M490. 90° correspond to the vertical axis of sample cylinder and 0° is perpendicular sample cylinder axis

, *l-1,4)+result(2*l,4))/2; %frequency average Sf = 1*10^(-6), f=, issue.2

, % phi1-phi2 %if some functions are missing, please contact D.Freitas Sphi=(sqrt(SphiTC1^2+SphiTC2^2))*pi()/180;% std on phi (1s) while phi<0 %important step to keep the phase shift phi=abs

, *P^2+25.019*P+3225.5+temperature*(-0.11749); %calculated from Li and Li, 2007.

*. 10^5, /(temperature^2))/0.14069; % heat capacity, 1991.

K. ,

, -alpha*(temperature-298.15)+P/K)^(-1/3); %calculation of size variations Sd = sqrt(((1-alpha*(temperature-298.15)+P/K)^(-1/3))^2*Sd0^2

D. Figure, M525 -166b (4 GPa) experimental procedure with temperature history with time and power/temperature calibration. Microphotographs of recovered sample are provided perpendicular (left) and parallel (right) to sample cylinder axis

D. Figure, Phase shift (first raw), amplitude ratio (third raw) and inferred diffusivities (second and fourth raw respectively), are represented as function of temperature and frequency

D. Figure, Phase shift (first raw), amplitude ratio (third raw) and inferred diffusivities (second and fourth raw respectively), are represented as function of temperature and frequency