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Long time behaviour of kinetic equations

Abstract : This dissertation is devoted to the long time behaviour of the kinetic Fokker-Planck equation and of the McKean-Vlasov equation. The manuscript is composed of an introduction and six chapters.The kinetic Fokker-Planck equation is a basic example for Villani's hypocoercivity theory which asserts the exponential decay in large time in the absence of coercivity. In his memoir, Villani proved the hypocoercivity for the kinetic Fokker-Planck equation in either weighted H^1, weighted L^2 or entropy.However, a boundedness condition of the Hessian of the Hamiltonian was imposed in the entropic case. We show in Chapter 2 how we can get rid of this assumption by well-chosen multipliers with the help of a weighted logarithmic Sobolev inequality. Such a functional inequality can be obtained by some tractable Lyapunov condition.In Chapter 4, we apply Villani's ideas and some Lyapunov conditions to prove hypocoercivity in weighted H^1 in the case of mean-field interaction with a rate of exponential convergence independent of the number N of particles. For proving this we should prove the Poincaré inequality with a constant independent of N, and rends a dimension dependent boundeness estimate of Villani dimension-free by means of the stronger uniform log-Sobolev inequality and Lyapunov function method. In Chapter 6, we study the hypocoercive contraction in L^2-Wasserstein distance and we recover the optimal rate in the quadratic potential case. The method is based on the temporal derivative of the Wasserstein distance.In Chapter 7, Villani's hypoercivity theorem in weighted H^1 space is extended to weighted H^k spaces by choosing carefully some appropriate mixed terms in the definition of norm of H^k.The McKean-Vlasov equation is a nonlinear nonlocal diffusive equation. It is well-Known that it has a gradient flow structure. However, the known results strongly depend on convexity assumptions. Such assumptions are notably relaxed in Chapter 3 and Chapter 5 where we prove the exponential convergence to equilibrium respectively in free energy and the L^1-Wasserstain distance. Our approach is based on the mean field limit theory. That is, we study the associated system of a large numer of paricles with mean-field interaction and then pass to the limit by propagation of chaos.
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Chaoen Zhang. Long time behaviour of kinetic equations. Analysis of PDEs [math.AP]. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019CLFAC056⟩. ⟨tel-02513969⟩

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