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Analyse et optimisation technico-économiques des nouveaux services de mobilité basés sur l'usage des véhicules autonomes

Abstract : Autonomous Vehicles (AV) are becoming more of a reality, promising beneficial yet potentially disrupting changes to our urban transportation systems. This technology presents the potential to reduce energy consumption and crash occurrences, cut travel costs and minimize urban space occupancy for parking purposes. Yet barriers to implementation and mass-market penetration remain. Economically, the upfront costs in the initial stage will likely lack affordability. Socially, users could be reluctant to change their daily travel routines. Technically, the interactions with the other components of the transportation system remain uncertain. There are other challenges regarding liability, security, ethics and data privacy, too.This thesis contributes to the ex-ante study of AV-based mobility systems through the identification, design and assessment of upcoming Business Models (BM) articulated around AVs. In particular, it brings about a systemic analysis of “new” mobility services (especially car-sharing, carpooling and ride-sourcing services) in order to identify autonomous taxis (aTaxis) and autonomous shuttles (aTransit) as two of the most relevant forms of services that may enjoy wide spreading. Then, we focus on a service of aTaxis and we put forward a microeconomic model framework to evaluate strategic setups of aTaxis provider. The model framework comprises three levels (operational, tactical and strategic), and integrates three pressure forces (regulation, unit costs and demand preferences). An application is then conducted on a stylized area (Orbicity) and a real urban case (Palaiseau, a city in Paris area).Simulation results show that automation has the potential to improve both the mobility performances and the economic efficiency of the urban transportation system. Additionally, the density economies of supply and demand are evaluated by controlling both the fleet size and the number of users for a fixed study area. In particular, the framework application on Palaiseau proved that increasing by ten the fleet size of aTaxis involves 1% more users (+15 passengers) yet 50% less of profit. A stated-preference survey supports the model framework and suggests that aTaxis will likely be used for short-distance (2 to 5 km) commuting trips by two user profiles: (1) non-motorized young users (less than 30 years old) and (2) motorized active population between 30 and 50 years old.The thesis takes an interdisciplinary approach combining (1) a qualitative analysis that starts from a review of existing works and adds first a marketing analysis of Business Models based on AVs and second a systemic analysis of an aTaxis service, and (2) a quantitative analysis, situated midway between microeconomics and spatial simulation.
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Jaâfar Berrada. Analyse et optimisation technico-économiques des nouveaux services de mobilité basés sur l'usage des véhicules autonomes. Economies et finances. Université Paris-Est, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PESC1002⟩. ⟨tel-02513386⟩

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