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Optimisation de l'instrumentation pour le suivi et l'évaluation de l'état des alvéoles de strockage de déchets radioactifs

Abstract : In the Cigéo project for deep geological of radioactive waste, Andra wants to optimize the number of Vibrating Wire Extensometers (VWE) to follow the convergence tunnel (cells) cross-section built at 490 m depth. The answer to this problem is given in four chapters with (1) a state of the art on methods of damage detection, optimizations and inverse models, (2) the implementation of the numerical model, (3) the optimization methodology to estimate the horizontal stress or the deformed cell cross-section and finally (4) the results of the optimization. The numerical model allows creating a DataBase (DB) of potential strain according to the input parameters measured in situ. Uncertainties of the stiffness of the soil, the thickness variation of the coating and locations and intrinsic error of each sensor are considered. The genetic algorithm optimization methodology consists in determining the optimal number and location of the sensors allowing either to estimate the horizontal stress having generated strains measured by sensors, or build a probable deformation of the cell cross-section from the measured strains. The first method makes it possible to know the optimal location of VWE to detect strains linked to probable stresses. It is based on an inverse model. The second method is to ensure the reversibility of the storage (cell deformed allowing the withdrawal packages). It constructs a spline passing through the deformed values at the VWE locations. To estimate the horizontal stress, the best sensors placements are close to the kidneys. For the deformed estimation, sensors tend to be distributed on the cross-section periphery. Given the possibility of placing sensors in different orientations, the influence of this orientation gives preference to orthoradial VWEs while radial VWEs do not provide additional information.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 20, 2020 - 12:16:07 PM
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Elodie Chapoulade. Optimisation de l'instrumentation pour le suivi et l'évaluation de l'état des alvéoles de strockage de déchets radioactifs. Génie civil. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019CLFAC049⟩. ⟨tel-02513165⟩



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