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"Faire son miel de la diversité" : éléments pour une géohistoire rurale des apicultures méditerranéennes (Corse et sud-ouest du Maroc)

Abstract : The bee and its breeding have been subjected, for more than twenty years, to a set of disturbances (pesticides, diseases, climatic changes, agricultural practices) that combine and interfere, placing beekeepers in front of a horizon made of increasing and generalized uncertainties. If the cause is heard, the hype associated with it, however, tends to invisibilize the practices of beekeepers and their diversity. This work therefore pursues two objectives. The first is to give place to beekeeping in agrarian and rural studies as an agricultural activity with various forms. The second is to bring elements of debate, and why not answer, to the uncertainties encountered by beekeepers. The general perspective of this thesis is therefore to report on diversity by refocusing apicultural analysis on beekeeping know-how and their spatial, social and cultural inclusion in order to understand the dynamic relationship between this activity and its “milieu”. For this we rely on two cases of complementary studies, the south-west of Morocco and Corsica.The first part of this work attempts to describe, from a diachronic perspective, the basis of the apicultures of the studied fields. Two monographs offer a rereading of agricultural dynamics through the prism of apiculture, systematically forgotten in rural studies so far. Through fine descriptions of apicultural practices and the place of beekeeping in space as well as in individual and collective projects, we show the link between beekeeping activities and the landscape and territorial dynamics of the cases studied. We then propose three points of comparison from these monographs. A first looks at the technical changes that have upset the apicultures since the fifties according to a same Western paradigm of modernity based on an increased control of Nature. We demonstrate, by mobilizing an approach through sociotechnical transitions, that the application of such a paradigm, presented as a unique technical horizon, nevertheless knows multiple forms of reappropriation. In this way, we question the political and social inclinations to continue in this direction even as uncertainties pile up. A second point focuses on the responses to these uncertainties and the importance and effectiveness, over time, of collective and territorialized responses implemented by beekeepers. It is a follow-up to criticisms of the dominant paradigm of relation to Nature, which promotes ever greater technicization and individualized practices. We show that beekeeping, because of a particularly mobile insect and of mostly unsuitable and poorly controlled resources, requires concerted actions going beyond the individual scale of exploitation. Finally, we extend this observation by studying the coexistence of various beekeeping forms in terms of sustainability of both sectors and territories. Thus, we come to extend the debate to the coexistence apiculture / agriculture which crystallizes today the societal awareness of a global environmental crisis. Through these three points of comparison, beekeeping appears as an activity able to question, in a complex way, the changing relationships that societies have with their communities. This thesis, pioneer in social sciences concerning beekeeping, has a non-negligible exploratory scope. It is intended to be a cornerstone for new debates between beekeepers and those who are currently driving agriculture as a whole.
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Antonin Adam. "Faire son miel de la diversité" : éléments pour une géohistoire rurale des apicultures méditerranéennes (Corse et sud-ouest du Maroc). Géographie. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019MON30021⟩. ⟨tel-02512049⟩

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