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Facteurs environnementaux et qualité microbiologique de l'eau potable dans les villes à faible revenu, cas de Madagascar

Abstract : Urbanization is one of the most important changes of the 21st century, especially for sub-Saharan cities. They must manage their natural resources. Water resources, for example, are becoming increasingly vulnerable, either because they can no longer meet the various needs (population, industry, agriculture) or because they are subject to ever-increasing environmental pressures. Continuous pollution by wastewater, runoff and soil erosion suggest that these ecosystems are specific. In cities in low-income countries, such as Madagascar, access to safe drinking water is also limited due to technical and environmental constraints.Understanding how these environmental changes can affect microbiological quality then becomes a public health issue, especially in a context where sanitation and resource protection are not controlled. The objective is to assess the impact of urbanization, as well as other environmental factors on the dynamics of the indicators of contamination of the supply water of Madagascar's cities (i); to characterize the interactions between climatic conditions and the quality of the distributed water (ii).The dynamics of bacterial indicators of water quality supplied have been analyzed over the long term (16 and 32 years) at the scale of urban systems and have shown that bacteriological contamination of urban drinking water is subject to wide seasonal variations, with disparities between cities. The type of resource, the treatment implemented, population growth and environmental threats related to the degradation of urban basins are the main environmental and technical determinants that support contamination profiles. Climatic conditions, including precipitation and non-management of runoff, are the main factors contributing to the biological instability of these urban supply systems from wastewater, runoff and soil erosion suggests that these ecosystems are specific.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02511445
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Submitted on : Wednesday, March 18, 2020 - 6:06:08 PM
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Alexandra Bastaraud. Facteurs environnementaux et qualité microbiologique de l'eau potable dans les villes à faible revenu, cas de Madagascar. Hydrologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLV059⟩. ⟨tel-02511445⟩

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