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Étude de la régulation des cellules lymphoïdes innées par les lymphocytes T chez la souris

Abstract : Many articles in the literature report that the composition, the frequency and the activity of ILCs are strongly affected when the adaptive immune system is deficient in mice. However, the mechanisms by which adaptive immunity regulates the homeostasis of ILCs remain largely unknown. The objective of my thesis was to address the role played by T cells in this regulation within lymphoid tissues such as peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes and in the small intestine. I also characterised some of the regulatory mechanisms involved in this dialogue between ILCs and T cells and determined their tissue specificity. During my thesis, I confirmed that the regulation of gut resident ILC3 by CD4+ T cells is based on their ability to participate in the containment and diversification of bacterial communities colonizing the gut. In addition, I have also highlighted the role of CD4+ T cells in the regulation of the frequency and activity of type 2 ILCs in the mesenteric lymph nodes. The latter does not rely on the activation of CD4+ T cells by the gut microbiota. Indeed, I showed that the expression of the gene encoding IL-33 is increased in the mesenteric lymph nodes of T cell deficient mice and that the short-term neutralization of IL-33 signalling in vivo significantly reduces the frequency of type 2 ILCs in the mLNs of these mice. In collaboration with Lucie Peduto's team, we showed that T lymphocytes indirectly regulate the expression of IL-33 by mesenteric lymph nodes stromal cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these interactions remain to be elucidated. Finally, the role of other T-cell dependent environmental factors remains to be characterised. Indeed, our preliminary results indicate that T-B cooperation may be instrumental in the regulation of mesenteric lymph nodes resident ILC2 while it is redundant in the regulation of gut resident type 3 ILCs by CD4+ T cells.
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Priscillia Bresler. Étude de la régulation des cellules lymphoïdes innées par les lymphocytes T chez la souris. Immunologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCB078⟩. ⟨tel-02511343⟩

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