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Étude des propriétés régulatrices d’une population de précurseurs de cellules dendritiques plasmacytoïdes conditionnée par le CpG dans le cadre de réponses auto-immune et allogénique

Abstract : Hematopoietic progenitors can sense innate signals. Their early education by such signals within the bone marrow, prior to their egress, may have considerable impact on the outcome of immune responses. While mature plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are known to either aggravate or ameliorate disease both auto-immune and allogeneic, it remains unknown whether immune regulatory function can be stably imprinted at the precursor stage in the pDC lineage onwards. We herein investigated whether activation with the oligonucleotide CpG, a Toll-like receptor-9 agonist, confers to bone marrow pDC precursors (CpG-prepDCs) characterized by the c-kit+Sca-1+B220intPDCA-1+ phenotype the capacity to protect against two kinds of murine immune pathologies: Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis which is an autoimmune disease and graft versus host disease (GVHD), an allogeneic response. We demonstrate that the adoptive transfer of relatively low number of CpG-pre-pDCs (80.000 in EAE and 200.000 in GVHD) was able to clinically reduce both diseases. Interestingly, CpG-pre-pDCs migrated to the spinal cord in EAE and to the spleen in GVHD where their progeny retained a relatively immature pDC phenotype. In EAE, the progeny of CpG-pre-pDCs massively produces IL-27 and TGFß and moderately GM-CSF. In the inflamed central nervous system, the progeny switches the immune response of infiltrating CD4+ T cells from pro-inflammatory (IFNy+ GM-CSF+ IL-17+) to anti-inflammatory (TGFß+, IL-27+, IL-17-, GM-CSFlo). The key role of TGFß and IL-27 was assessed using precursors incapacitated for the production of each of those cytokines. These experiments demonstrated that the two soluble factors acted sequentially: TGFß ensures early phases of the immunomodulation mediated by the CpG-pre-pDC while IL-27 is required for later protection. In GVHD, the mechanisms of protection are different yet similar in some ways. As for EAE, the progeny of CpG-pre-pDCs is still able to produce TGFß but this time in combination with IL-12, another cytokine from the IL-27 family. Additionally, those cells were able to reduce the IL-17 production by both pathogenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The human equivalent of CpG-pre-pDC could be a new therapeutic tool in patients with multiple sclerosis or graft versus host disease either per se or enriched in the hematopoietic stem cell transfer already implemented to treat those two immune conditions.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02510077, version 1

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Hélène Letscher. Étude des propriétés régulatrices d’une population de précurseurs de cellules dendritiques plasmacytoïdes conditionnée par le CpG dans le cadre de réponses auto-immune et allogénique. Immunologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCB058⟩. ⟨tel-02510077⟩

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