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Modelling airframe noise : from aerodynamic topology to acoustic efficiency

Abstract : The influence of the shape on the sound emission of cylindrical bluff-bodies is studied. Simulations are performed in two-dimensions (2D) at low-Reynolds number (Re=20-200), with the incompressible direct Navier-Stokes (DNS) solver incompact3D, using the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) formalism; the acoustic emission is evaluated by a single formula derived from Curle’s equation for compact cylinders. In anechoic wind tunnel, the acoustic signature is measured for about 30 geometries, Re=4,000-53,000; hot-wire measurements of the spanwise flow characteristics are performed for a subset of the tested cylinders. The influence of both the shape of the upstream portion of the geometry and the breadth-to-height ratio (AR) are proved to be major features in terms of both the flow and its acoustic emission in 2D. By reducing the strength of the vortices and pushing them downstream and affecting the mechanics of the von Kármán instability (delaying the transition to unsteadiness), stretched shapes (with higher AR) are generally quieter. From the experiments, it is found that the geometries of biggest AR are the loudest, contraposing the results obtained in 2D. The disparity is justified by a significant increase of the spanwise coherence associated with the larger AR’s, practically fully-phased, thus more acoustically efficient. Globally, it is implied that geometries which have weakly perturbed flow in 2D, marked by a later transition to unsteadiness (larger critical Reynolds number), are also more organized in 3D, high-Reynolds number regimes. The underlying relationship between low and high-Reynolds number transitions must be further investigated.
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Wagner José Gonçalves da Silva Pinto. Modelling airframe noise : from aerodynamic topology to acoustic efficiency. Acoustics [physics.class-ph]. Université de Poitiers, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019POIT2289⟩. ⟨tel-02507094⟩

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