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Organisation du génome par le complexe cohésine chez la levure Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Abstract : Cohesin is an evolutionary-conserved complex composed of a ring capable of DNA entrapment and of auxiliary proteins regulating its association with DNA. On the one hand, cohesin confers sister chromatid cohesion required for their proper segregation and on the other hand it establishes and maintains chromatin looping. Chromatin loops are crucial for assembly of topological domains, gene expression and genome stability. However, mechanisms driving their establishment remain to be elucidated. According to loop extrusion model, cohesin would capture small loops and enlarge them by extruding DNA throughout its ring. This model predicts that loop size would depend on both cohesin residence time on DNA and on its processivity. Deciphering cohesin regulation is thus fundamental to understand chromosome biology. In this study, we showed that mitotic chromosome arms of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are organised in cohesin-dependent chromatin loops. We studied the role of cohesin regulatory subunits Pds5, Wpl1 and Eco1 on loop establishment. Our data show that Pds5 inhibits loop expansion via Wpl1 and Eco1. As previously described in mammals, Wpl1 counteracts loop expansion by dissociating cohesin from DNA. Our results suggest that Eco1 would inhibit cohesin translocation on DNA, required for loop expansion. We then studied how these proteins contribute to the organisation of the ribosomal DNA array (rDNA), a cohesin-rich, highly transcribed sequence segregated away from the rest of the genome. Our data point toward a central role for Pds5 in organising this genomic region, independently of Wpl1 and Eco1. To study in detail rDNA spatial organisation, we developed a dedicated image analysis to assess its organisation in three dimensions. We have unveiled an underlying organisation for rDNA, made by a succession of small domains spatially organised by cohesin. This study opens large perspectives towards a better understanding of cohesin regulation in genome organisation.
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Lise Dauban. Organisation du génome par le complexe cohésine chez la levure Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biologie cellulaire. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019TOU30100⟩. ⟨tel-02505710⟩

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