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Diagnostiquer la vulnérabilité relative aux pénuries en eau par une approche interdisciplinaire : application cartographique de l IPE et étude de discours dans l'État de Chihuahua (Mexique)

Abstract : Periods of drought, water consumption and pollution are increasing and alarming especially in Northern Mexico, where aridity, agricultural production and cross-border conjuncture make water resources management crucial. Associated with socio-economic dynamics, hydric variations affect societies at various levels (sanitary, economic, ecologic, …). Water scarcity studies address these different factors in synthetic diagnostics that help decision-making. The matter is to define action perimeters in order to reduce population exposure, but also consider sociosystem fragilities as well as adaptation capacities which increase or reduce the population vulnerability to water scarcities. Then analysis must go beyond disciplinary frameworks and one-scale analyzes. In this process Water Poverty Index (WPI) is interesting even if the place granted to hydrological and environmental factors in its statistical applications are questioned. WPI is calculated using cartographical tools and (public) data in the State of Chihuahua to make visible contrasted water scarcities. Three Multi-Criteria Evaluations alternatives are applied through TerrSet software adapting WPI scale calculation, indicator normalization and factor compensation. The maps obtained are interesting since they reveal socio-economic shortages in Chihuahuas’ Mountains, hydrological shortages in the desert territories, and massive aquifer overexploitation in the development corridors located at the interface of these two geographical entities. Indeed, WPI maps also insist on rural marginalization and importance of agricultural water management. This exposure diagnostic is completed by a discourse qualitative approach in the agricultural region of Delicias. Analyzing local relations allow specifying the cartographical diagnostic: cleavages are dividing the sociosystem and explain the vulnerability to human degradation of the resource of the territory.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 10, 2020 - 12:09:08 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, March 11, 2020 - 1:48:45 AM

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Marie Wurtz. Diagnostiquer la vulnérabilité relative aux pénuries en eau par une approche interdisciplinaire : application cartographique de l IPE et étude de discours dans l'État de Chihuahua (Mexique). Géographie. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II; Centro de investigación en materiales avanzados (Chihuahua, Mexique), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019TOU20002⟩. ⟨tel-02503863⟩

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