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Analyse du comportement vibroacoustique et tribologique d'un motoréducteur de lève-vitre automobile

Abstract : Like other performance offered by a motor vehicle such as safety and fuel economy, acoustic comfort within the passenger compartment should be considered in the design process. Over the past few decades, efforts have been continuously made to significantly reduce powertrain noise emissions. As a result, nuisances from motorized vehicle accessories now have a significant impact on perceived noise inside the interior of the car.The object of the research presented in this manuscript is to identify the excitation sources generated by the operation of the NGM-type electric window lift gear motor, to understand the physical phenomena that govern the noise generated, and to propose solutions to improve the quality of the product in terms of vibroacoustic behavior. Two different but complementary approaches are used: an experimental approach and a numerical approach.The experimental campaign is used to characterize the acceleration response of the system envelope, the acoustic pressure emitted and the forces transmitted to the host structure. The influence of the operating speed, the applied torque and the mechanical imbalance is evaluated and the dispersion of the results due to the manufacture, the assembly of the components and the operating temperature is highlighted. A modified configuration of the test bench using an external brushless motor makes it possible to discriminate certain excitation sources associated with the contact between the brushes and the collector by removing them one after the other. As a result, the respective weight of the friction, the mechanical shocks, of the current flow and of the switching arcs occurring together with the brush / collector interface is evaluated.A numerical approach is used to evaluate the effect of previously modeled excitation sources, such as unbalance, fluctuations in electromagnetic torque, Maxwell pressures, static transmission error and meshing stiffness generated by the worm / worm system, as well as the eccentricity of the toothed wheel. For this purpose, a finite element modeling of the motor reducer allows to obtain an experimentally reassigned modal base, on which the dynamic response resulting from the resolution of the parametric motion equations is projected by an iterative spectral method.To investigate the contacts between the brushes and the collector, a tribometer is developed and instrumented in the laboratory with the aim of forging links between the triboelectric and vibroacoustic behavior of these contacts. A qualitative numerical model of contact developed using the calculation code Ra3D also allows to observe the temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of the contact spots and of the global contact force.
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Sarah Isabelle Dibor Diop. Analyse du comportement vibroacoustique et tribologique d'un motoréducteur de lève-vitre automobile. Autre. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSEC020⟩. ⟨tel-02502287⟩

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