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Cellules Solaires à base de Matériaux Pérovskites : De la caractérisation des matériaux à l’amélioration des rendements et de la stabilité

Abstract : In the past few years, hybrid perovskite solar cells have attracted a considerable amount of research and have undergone rapid development as next generation photovoltaics. The power conversion efficiency has then been rapidly increasing and has recently exceeded 25%. This class of materials has interesting optoelectronic properties such as a high optical absorption, a large diffusion length of the charge carriers as well as a low manufacturing cost. Nevertheless, there are several challenges that need to be addressed before commercialization will be possible, most significantly the long-term stability. In this thesis work, the main goal is to understand and improve the performance and stability under illumination of N-I-P perovskite-based solar cells. A detailed study of the reference system using CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite (MAPI) is presented by studying the formation mechanism of MAPI and its thermal behavior after annealing by XRD techniques. It showed that MAI and PbCl2 precursors initially form a MAPbCl3 layer, which transforms to MAPbI3 in an anion exchange reaction during thermal annealing, inducing a high level of strain in the MAPI layers. Solar cells were aged under continuous illumination (1 sun / 35°C) and showed severe efficiency loss. The origin of devices instability under illumination were investigated in depth thanks to the differential aging. It consists in aging the different layers under illumination before the deposition of top layers in order to determine the key parameter (layer or interface) responsible of this degradation. Results have shown that for long time scales, the upper layers (P-layer and gold electrode are responsible of solar cells degradation, while the N layer / MAPI interface causes degradation at the first hundred hours. To get further insight into the role of ETL / MAPI interface on device behavior; advanced characterization methods, combining XPS and ToFSIMS, were developed and made it possible to study the degradation of the stack glass / ITO / N layer / MAPI, aged under illumination. Improved system with double cations perovskite Cs0.05FA0.95Pb (I 0.83Br0.17)3 have also been studied and show better stability under illumination of complete cells.
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Pia Dally. Cellules Solaires à base de Matériaux Pérovskites : De la caractérisation des matériaux à l’amélioration des rendements et de la stabilité. Génie des procédés. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAI093⟩. ⟨tel-02499789⟩



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