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Development and validation of stimulation strategies for the optogenetics

Abstract : A million and a half people suffer from Retinitis Pigmentosa, a family of inherited diseases leading to degeneration of the retina. The disease begins with the loss of night vision and peripheral visual field and leads to total blindness. Due to the heterogeneity of the genetic mutations responsible for the disease, emerging solutions aim to compensate for the symptoms of the disease rather than curing it. These retinal prostheses have three elements: (i) a camera filming the scene in front of the patient, usually mounted on a pair of glasses, (ii) a stimulation device controlling a part of the neuronal activity of the patient and (iii) a processor that implements the transformation between the output signal of the camera and the stimulation commands. The work presented in this thesis contributes to the work of GenSight Biologics to develop such a retinal prosthesis. The project combines two recent technologies, a neuromorphic camera in which each pixel acquires the signal in an asynchronous manner, and a very high temporal resolution, and optogenetics which makes the targeted neurons photoexcitable. My work spans the entire chain of signal processing. We first present an algorithm extracting the spatial frequencies of the video from the asynchronous measurement stream emitted by the camera. Next, we focus on the Brain-Machine Interface by developing a model of the transformation linking the projected light signal and the trains of action potential triggered by the patient's retinal ganglion cells.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02498147, version 1


Quentin Sabatier. Development and validation of stimulation strategies for the optogenetics. Automatic. Sorbonne Université, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SORUS083⟩. ⟨tel-02498147⟩



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