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Theses

Aides à la mobilité et insertion sociale

Abstract : Mobility has become an important issue and a major objective of public policies in favour of poor households. Research has largely shown that people who are far away from employment are also far away in a purely spatial way. Often distant from employment areas, with greater financial insecurity, the poorest have greater difficulty in finding employment, getting to their workplaces, accessing public services or local amenities. Some of the literature focused on explaining this spatial segregation; others on showing its negative consequences and the vicious circles in which it locked in poor people; and a third on analysing ways to reduce.This thesis aims to shed specific light on mobility aids provided to disadvantaged households. These aids were developed in France mainly since the 1990s. Although they take various forms, they share the same objective: to promote the spatial mobility of poor households through easier access to individual or public transport. Their implementation is essentially local. There is little litterature that tried to measure the consequences of the development of these aids. This thesis aims to shed particular light on this point. First, we propose a study of the development of these aids since the 1980s and especially the 1990s, based on a national impetus, but with very varied local applications. We seek to measure how these aids have been able to interact both with the national social assistance system and with other local aids. We show that these aids may have contributed to reinforcing the threshold effects and poverty traps that were specific to the RMI mechanism and that led to its replacement by the RSA. We also show the RSA major reform of national social assistance has had an impact on local aid and specifically on transport aids. The second chapter focuses on an aspect forgotten in Chapter 1, that of the non-take-up of social assistance. The originality of our work is to look at a specific aid to transport (the “Forfait Gratuité Transport” in Ile de France) and to study the non-take-up of this aid by integrating a double spatial dimension: first of all, the distance between the beneficiaries and the public transport network, which may explain a lower use. The next issue is the influence of the geographical environment and in particular the networks effects on the knowledge and demand for such assistance. The last two chapters propose experimental evaluations of mobility aids aimed at young people who have left the school system and are neither in training nor in employment (NEETs). For these young people, mobility is central to their professional and social integration. We first evaluate sixteen different actions proposed by different actors to promote mobility. We show a positive but contrasting effect: low intensity aids have less effect than high intensity aids. This observation is largely confirmed in the fourth chapter, which evaluates the experimentation of the “Service Militaire Volontaire”. The selected young people receive general and vocational training as well as driving licence preparation. This extremely intensive system, where young people are supervised by soldiers, gives impressive results in terms of professional integration and, above all, in terms of obtaining a driving licence. For mobility support policies to be effective, both on mobility and integration, we can conclude that it is better to concentrate resources on the most vulnerable
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Denis Anne. Aides à la mobilité et insertion sociale. Economies et finances. Université Paris-Est, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PESC2052⟩. ⟨tel-02497000⟩

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