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Theses

Dynamique des surfaces planétaires actives : quantification des paysages, modélisation et inversion

Abstract : Impact crater are often used in the study of planetary surfaces. On the one hand, statistics on crater number provide the age of the surface, on the other hand, their shapes reflect the surface processes they witnessed. This study combines the statistic and morphology approaches in order to investigate the timing and intensity of sedimentary and volcanic processes of planetary surfaces. The use of crater depth measurements add a dimension to frequency distributions with the introduction of size and depth frequency distribution (SDFD). SDFSs can be interpreted in term of crater obliteration rates thanks to crater chronology models. We also developed models of crater population taking into account obliteration. Mars surface is highly cratered with many craters displaying signs of modifications by volcanic process, sedimentation and erosion. We interpreted SDFDs using a classic crater chronology system, to produce global maps of obliteration at different epochs of Mars. During Noachian, obliteration rates reach several thousands m/Gy, but rapidly decrease during early Hesperian and are close to 0 during Amazonian. Obliteration on the province of Tharsis decreased slower, suggesting a persistence of volcanic activity until early Amazonian. Northern lowlands witness Amazonian obliteration rates one order of magnitude higher than the rest of the planet, which may indicate the continuous formation of Vastitas Borealis during middle Amazonian. In addition to our global approach, we computed recent obliteration rates from mapping of high resolution images on landing sites of rover missions. Mawrth Vallis and Oxia Planum present significant obliteration rates, especially on units containing hydrated minerals
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02496264
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  • HAL Id : tel-02496264, version 1

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Sylvain Breton. Dynamique des surfaces planétaires actives : quantification des paysages, modélisation et inversion. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1280⟩. ⟨tel-02496264⟩

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