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Intensive use of computing resources for dominations in grids and other combinatorial problems

Abstract : Our goal is to prove new results in graph theory and combinatorics thanks to the speed of computers, used with smart algorithms. We tackle four problems.The four-colour theorem states that any map of a world where all countries are made of one part can be coloured with 4 colours such that no two neighbouring countries have the same colour. It was the first result proved using computers, in 1989. We wished to automatise further this proof. We explain the proof and provide a program which proves it again. It also makes it possible to obtain other results with the same method. We give potential leads to automatise the search for discharging rules.We also study the problems of domination in grids. The simplest one is the one of domination. It consists in putting a stone on some cells of a grid such that every cell has a stone, or has a neighbour which contains a stone. This problem was solved in 2011 using computers, to prove a formula giving the minimum number of stones needed depending on the dimensions of the grid. We successfully adapt this method for the first time for variants of the domination problem. We solve partially two other problems and give for them lower bounds for grids of arbitrary size.We also tackled the counting problem for dominating sets. How many dominating sets are there for a given grid? We study this counting problem for the domination and three variants. We prove the existence of asymptotic growths rates for each of these problems. We also give bounds for each of these growth rates.Finally, we study polyominoes, and the way they can tile rectangles. They are objects which generalise the shapes from Tetris: a connected (of only one part) set of squares. We tried to solve a problem which was set in 1989: is there a polyomino of odd order? It consists in finding a polyomino which can tile a rectangle with an odd number of copies, but cannot tile any smaller rectangle. We did not manage to solve this problem, but we made a program to enumerate polyominoes and try to find their orders, discarding those which cannot tile rectangles. We also give statistics on the orders of polyominoes of size up to 18.
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Alexandre Talon. Intensive use of computing resources for dominations in grids and other combinatorial problems. Discrete Mathematics [cs.DM]. Université de Lyon, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSEN079⟩. ⟨tel-02495924⟩



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