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Sortir des favelas de Rio de Janeiro d'une situation d'exception : sécurisation et territorialisation de l'action publique : l'exemple de Rocinha et de Vigidal

Abstract : As host city of the FIFA World Cup in 2014 and Olympic Games in 2016, municipality of Rio de Janeiro seeks to respond to international expectations in terms of urban planning and security. Favelas, which have often been considered as an « urban problem », are at the heart of the public actions. Despite several eradication attempts during the military dictatorship, especially in wealthy areas of the city, the favelas have increased and are now subject of security and urbanization policies. For efficiency, public policies are rethought in a territorialised way, reinforcing public-private partnerships and the participation of the civil society. It pretends to remove the favelas of a situation of exception by introducing standards and urban amenities similar to formal neighborhoods (infrastructure, equipment, services, etc.). With very high crime rates, security is a challenge for the city. In 2008, the Public Security Secretariat of the State of Rio de Janeiro developed the so-called “pacification” policy, aiming at regaining control of the territories dominated by criminal groups, and at improving relations between the population and the police force, with the establishment of permanent Police Pacification Units (UPP). If the living conditions in the favelas are improving, these new public actions, however, show contrasted results : a new outbreak of confrontations in pacified favelas, between traffickers and police officers has contributed to reinforcing the feeling of insecurity of favelas residents. Moreover, valuation process and even gentrification, observed in some pacified favelas open up new opportunities to residents, but because of the price increase some of them are forced to move away. More generally, acceleration of urban transformations in the context of mega-events could modify the socio- spatial organization of the city (population displacements; transport infrastructure works, sports facilities construction, etc.). Focusing more specifically on two recently pacified favelas, Rocinha and Vidigal, located near wealthiest and most tourist areas of Rio de Janeiro, we seek to highlight the socio- spatial transformations and the effects of territorialised public actions.
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Justine Ninnin. Sortir des favelas de Rio de Janeiro d'une situation d'exception : sécurisation et territorialisation de l'action publique : l'exemple de Rocinha et de Vigidal. Géographie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA010682⟩. ⟨tel-02495744⟩

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