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La couleur des vitraux au XIIIème siècle. Étude chimique et spectroscopique

Abstract : Colour variety of medieval stained glass is a characteristic feature of gothic cathedrals. Glass colour results mainly from ions of metals such as copper, iron and cobalt, and depends on parameters from glass fabrication, like its chemical composition or the furnace atmosphere. These glasses are thus important witnesses in the history of glass technology. First, we summarised the reported French medieval glass compositions, to work out the relationship between their changes over time and geography and the prime materials that have been used. The restoration of the Rose of Reims Cathedral allowed us to use optical absorption spectroscopy, with a portable device specifically designed, to analyse in a non-invasive manner the glass colours of this major window and the origin of the colourations. We showed how medieval glassmakers mastered many colouration processes and comparison with glass from previous restorations showed the consideration of restorers for matching the colour of ancient glasses. Among the colours, colourless to purple glasses are all coloured by a mixture of iron and manganese. Thank to XANES and optical absorption spectroscopies, and to the comparison between medieval glasses from state reserves and reproduction glasses we synthesised, we show that mastering of colourless to purple colouring result from a smart control of the oxidoreductive conditions in the furnace during glassmaking.
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Natan Capobianco. La couleur des vitraux au XIIIème siècle. Étude chimique et spectroscopique. Matériaux. Sorbonne Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SORUS296⟩. ⟨tel-02495688⟩

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