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Étude numérique et expérimentale de la diffraction en géométrie conique de réseaux optiques aux longueurs d’ondes X et UV

Abstract : The conical geometry of optical grating diffraction has been suggested and studied, in the last 10 years, for cutting edge applications in the VUV and X-ray domains, due to its specific properties such as: absence of screen inside the grating grooves at grazing incidence, low angular dispersion which limits the temporal spread of short pulses, very high diffraction efficiencies. It has been accepted as the first choice technology for VUV short pulses monochromatization. It is also one of the two options selected by NASA, for the grating spectrograph of the future X-ray Observatory of the Lynx mission. This thesis reports our contribution to the development of numerical methods in order to model the effects of diffraction by optical gratings in this still little studied geometry. This study is made more complex by an inherent coupling between the two fundamental polarization modes. From the numerical aspect, it requires performing “vectorial” computations, whereas, in a classical diffraction geometry, scalar computations are sufficient. Our work is based on numerical methods already developed for modeling optical diffraction by periodic structures in the framework of classical geometry. These methods are using on the differential theory, whose main concept is propagating a set of plane waves throughout the modulated area. We use the differential method together with an algorithm of reflectivity matrix propagation. It overcomes some of the convergence issues. In the theoretical part of this work, reflectivity matrix algorithms are extended to the case of oblique geometry. On these theoretical grounds, we developed a computation code, named COROX, which can be applied in any geometry. A number of typical grating cases have been studied, both in the conical and of le classical one. The output is not only the diffraction efficiencies, but also the polarization properties (Stokes parameters, Müller matrix), as well as the spectral phases. Interesting properties have been noticed, such as the presence of a non-negligible circularly polarized component diffracted from a lamellar grating when the incident wave is linearly polarized at 45° from the grating plane. The spectral phase behavior is also a significant data for an eventual shape tayloring of ultrashort pulses. Diffraction efficiency measurements have been performed on the Metrology beamline of Synchrotron SOLEIL, using a 150 lines/mm blazed grating as a test object. A reasonable agreement between measured and computed efficiencies has been obtained, provided that the rather high roughness of this grating is taken into account.
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Ahmed Akarid. Étude numérique et expérimentale de la diffraction en géométrie conique de réseaux optiques aux longueurs d’ondes X et UV. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS327⟩. ⟨tel-02495350⟩

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