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Réponses hémodynamiques et métaboliques des muscles paravertébraux à l'exercice : influence de la lombalgie chronique et de la pratique d'activités physiques

Abstract : Introduction: Paraspinal muscles are required continuously during daily tasks for trunk stabilization and mobilization. For this, aerobic metabolism muscle contribution is required. Chronic low back pain is characterized by a high level of fatigability and pain sensations in regard to paraspinal muscles. These symptoms may be attributed to an alteration in aerobic metabolism responses. Conversely, practising physical and sports activities (PSA) could improve these responses.Objective: The main objective was to determine the specificities in aerobic metabolism responses in regard to paraspinal muscles, in chronic low back pain patients following a functional restoration program and in healthy athletes.Method: Four studies have been conducted. Participants performed submaximal trunk extension exercises on an isokinetic dynamometer for five minutes, to assess paraspinal muscle aerobic metabolism responses to exercises. Chronic low back pain patients were paired with and compared to healthy individuals and followed during a functional restoration program, in which physical exercise was the main component. Also, healthy young individuals, with and without sport specialization, were compared with each other.Results/Conclusion: In chronic low back pain patients, the functional restoration program allows an acceleration in V̇O2, kinetics, an increase in paraspinal muscle oxygenation, and an increase in mechanical efficiency to exercise. In young athletes, the aerobic responses were also improved, and the changes in responses depended on the training modalities. Practicing SPA enhances the aerobic metabolism contribution during prolonged trunk extension exercise, in regard to paraspinal muscles. There was no difference in aerobic metabolism responses between the chronic low back pain patients and the healthy individuals, despite weak levels of maximal strength and high levels of muscle fatigability when exercising (for the chronic low back pain patients). Although the preliminary results did not attest to an alteration in aerobic responses in chronic low back pain patients, our results suggest that practising physical activities could limit paraspinal muscle fatigability, which could be a way to prevent injury and disappointing performances, by improving aerobic metabolism responses to exercise.
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Agathe Anthierens. Réponses hémodynamiques et métaboliques des muscles paravertébraux à l'exercice : influence de la lombalgie chronique et de la pratique d'activités physiques. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LIL2S009⟩. ⟨tel-02495348v2⟩

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