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Activités extractives et dynamiques territoriales au Sénégal : étude comparative entre l'or et le phosphate

Abstract : This thesis focuses on the economic, social, environmental changes sparked by extractive factories in their home territories at Senegal. Our hypothesis assumes that neoliberal reforms noted in the mining sector in Africa since the 1980s tend to favor the constrcution of extractive enclaves that maintain weak ties with the economy at the local level. Yet, the mining projects arouse expectations of development of local residents. Indeed, the inclusion methods of mining are characterized on the one hand, by irreversible impacts on the environment and on the people (the expropriation of local ressources polution, population displacement). On the other hand, the iimpacts induced by mining resulting in various forms of collective and individual compensation from the mining companies. To analyse these contradictory impacts of extractive activities we chose a comparative approach based on two exploitations of different types (gold and phosphate) and located in different areas (west and south-east), opposed by deep economic, social and demographic inequalities. The analysis of local changes related to the exploitation of gold and phosphate is based on field date collected through qualitative surveys conducted in the villages affected by mining activities and key concepts (local arena, mining frontier, mining enclave, Archipelago) This thesis is thus structured into three parts. The first part describes the development challenges associated with extractive companies in the area of investigation. The second focuses on the local implications of mining activities in terms of competition for the appropriation of resources. The third part deals with the power relationships between the various stakeholders in the mining sector at the local level in the decentralization context. The results of this analysis could promote better management of the effects of mining enhance consultation frameworks on mining sites.
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Mouhamadou Lamine Diallo. Activités extractives et dynamiques territoriales au Sénégal : étude comparative entre l'or et le phosphate. Géographie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I; Université de Saint-Louis (Sénégal), 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA010632⟩. ⟨tel-02493988⟩

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