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De l'armée coloniale à l'armée nationale en Mauritanie : une histoire militaire sahélo-saharienne, de la conquête à la guerre du Sahara (1934-1978)

Abstract : This thesis proposes a multidimensional history of the army of Mauritania since the French military conquest of the Western Sahara to the coup d’état of 10 July 1978 that inaugurated a long era of military governments. The colonial army, just like the colonial state, has its own characteristics. It develops, through its experiences, multiple adaptation strategies, both in terms of its organisation and military missions. Its two salient features are the double recruitment (that differentiates between sub-Saharan tirailleurs and « suppletifs maures » and the multiplicity of its missions (political, military, defense and policing).These specificities are partly inherited by the national armed forces through the transmission of military power (and domain ?). This process is particular contingent and must be analysed in all its complexity. This study of the effects of institutional transformations, linked to the analysis of the geopolitical stakes of the sub-region, demonstrates that local issues and dynamics are as significant as global ones. The study of the history of the Mauritanian army, gendarmerie and national guard since independance until the mid 1970s allows to identify the continuities, but also the trajectory of the postcolonial Mauritanian state, whose path is linked both to the agenda of local actors and the old colonial war.
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Camille Evrard. De l'armée coloniale à l'armée nationale en Mauritanie : une histoire militaire sahélo-saharienne, de la conquête à la guerre du Sahara (1934-1978). Histoire. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I; University of Portsmouth (Royaume-Uni), 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA010638⟩. ⟨tel-02493963⟩

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