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Biomécanique du transport collectif de charges, vers une application clinique

Abstract : During the last 50 years, a number of studies have been carried out on human locomotion and individual load carriage. Although these studies provide a valued theoretical framework, they do not allow to understand the mechanisms implemented by individuals when they have to carry collectively an object. Our project deals with the collective aspect of load carriage and attempts to understand how a dyad of individuals moves when individuals have to carry an object together. First, we measured several locomotor parameters commonly studied in biomechanics (using a kinematic, mechanical and dynamic approach) on healthy individuals carrying a light load. We studied each individual within a dyad separately and then considered the system formed by the dyad and the load. We also performed experiments where we increased the complexity of the collective load carriage task by asking individuals to perform a second task in the same time or by changing the mass of the load. Finally, in order to find an application of our experimental protocol in rehabilitation studies, we performed a preliminary study on the collective transport achieved by two patients suffering from intellectual disability. The results of this thesis allow to construct a sound study protocol of collective load carriage. We show that two subjects carrying an object together walk as economically as when they are walking separately. Achieving a second distractive task at the same time leads to the deterioration of the pendular displacement of the center of mass of the system formed by the individuals and the load they carry. The displacement of this system is also impacted when the mass of the load carried is increased. For loads equal to 40% of the body mass, our results show a deterioration of the pendular behavior and a decrease of the amplitude of the center of mass of the system. Finally, for individuals suffering from an intellectual disability, we show that the collaboration between two pathological individuals is less interesting from a rehabilitation point of view than the collaboration with a healthy individual.
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Guillaume Fumery. Biomécanique du transport collectif de charges, vers une application clinique. Biomécanique [physics.med-ph]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019TOU30003⟩. ⟨tel-02492160⟩

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