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L’institutionnalisation des plateformes : les cas d’Airbnb et Uber à Paris

Abstract : Based on a case study built around the analysis of the speeches produced by the various actors in the institutional fields concerned (the field of tourist accommodation for Airbnb, that of passenger transportation for Uber), I seek to highlight the strategies of the platforms to build their place in the social space. I use different analytical grids to understand the strategies implemented by Airbnb and Uber: the dynamics of platform business ecosystems developed by strategic management research, the megamarketing grid defined by Kotler in 1986, neo-institutional theory and its latest developments concerning institutional work and the question of legitimacy. I find that Airbnb and Uber have each mobilized their megamarketing skills in their own way to build their business ecosystem and legitimacy system, which is a real support for their institutional conquest. These different expressions of their strategies are also embodied in the institutional work process, which is oriented towards negotiation for Airbnb and confrontation for Uber. The results of the institutional process have similarities between the two cases: constitution of the legitimacy systems necessary to interpret the role of these two platforms, legal recognition of the activities permitted by the platforms and their producer sides, adjustment of the offers of established professionals. This work provides a glimpse of a platform life cycle model, taking into account the dynamics of these organizational forms and those resulting from institutional work and their quest for legitimacy.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 26, 2020 - 1:16:18 PM
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Sophie Balech. L’institutionnalisation des plateformes : les cas d’Airbnb et Uber à Paris. Sociologie. Université de Nanterre - Paris X, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PA100054⟩. ⟨tel-02491784⟩

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