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Communication Protocols in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN)

Abstract : The rapid advances in sensors and ultra-low power wireless communication has enabled a new generation of wireless sensor networks: Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). WBAN is a recent challenging area. There are several concerns in this area ranging from energy efficient communication to designing delay efficient protocols that support nodes dynamic induced by human body mobility. In WBAN tiny devices are deployed in/on or around a human body, are able to detect and collect the physiological phenomena of the human body (such as: EEG, ECG, SpO2, etc.), and transmit this information to a collector point (i.e Sink) that will process it, take decisions, alert or record. WBAN differs from typical large-scale wireless sensor networks WSN in many aspects: Network size is limited to a dozen of nodes, in-network mobility follows the body movements and the wireless channel has its specificities. Links have a very short range and a quality that varies with the wearer's posture. The transmission power is kept low to improve devices autonomy and reduce wearers electromagnetic exposition. Consequently, the effects of body absorption, reflections and interference cannot be neglected and it is difficult to maintain a direct link (one-hop) between the Sink and all WBAN nodes. Thus, multi-hop communication represents a viable alternative. In this work we investigate energy-efficient multi-hop communication protocols in WBAN. Our work is part of SMART-BAN Self-organizing Mobility Aware, Reliable and Timely Body Area Networks project. In order to evaluate our communication protocols described in the sequel in a specific WBAN scenario, we implemented them under the Omnet++ simulator that we enriched with the Mixim project and a realistic human body mobility and channel model issued from a recent research on biomedical and health informatics. We are interested in WBAN where sensors are placed on the body. We focus on two communication primitives: broadcast and converge-cast. For the broadcasting problem in WBAN, we analyze several broadcast strategies inspired from the area of DTN then we propose two novel broadcast strategies MBP: Mixed Broadcast Protocol and Optimized Flooding: -MBP (Mixed Broadcast Protocol): We proposed this strategy as a mix between the dissemination-based and knowledge-based approaches. -OptFlood (Optimized Flooding): This strategy takes into account the strengths and weaknesses of the basic strategy Flooding. Optimized Flooding is a revised version of Flooding whose purpose is to keep the good end-to-end delay given by Flooding while lowering energy consumption with the simplest way and the minimum cost. Additionally, we performed investigations of independent interest related to the ability of all the studied strategies to ensure the FIFO order consistency property (i.e. packets are received in the order of their sending) when stressed with various transmission rates. These investigations open new and challenging research directions. With no exception, the existing flat broadcast strategies register a dramatic drop of performances when the transmission rate is superior to 11Kb/s. There, we propose the first network-MAC layer broadcast protocol, CLBP, designed for multi-hop communication and resilient to human body postures and mobility. Our protocol is optimized to exploit the human body mobility by carefully choosing the most reliable communication paths in each studied posture. Moreover, our protocol includes a slot assignment mechanism that reduces the energy consumption, collisions, idle listening and overhearing. Additionally, CLBP includes a synchronization scheme that helps nodes to resynchronize with the Sink on the fly. Our protocol outperforms existing flat broadcast strategies in terms of percentage of covered nodes, energy consumption and correct reception of FIFO-ordered packets and maintains its good performances up to 190Kb/s transmission rates. [...]
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Submitted on : Monday, February 24, 2020 - 4:19:31 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02489796, version 1

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Wafa Badreddine. Communication Protocols in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). Performance [cs.PF]. Sorbonne Université, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SORUS214⟩. ⟨tel-02489796⟩

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