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Optimisation d'un capteur de force à atomes ultrafroids piégés dans un réseau optique

Abstract : The aim of the ForCa-G project (for Casimir-Polder Force and Gravitation) is to measure short range forces between an atom and a macroscopic surface. Our force sensor involves 87Rb atoms trapped in a vertical optical lattice where two-photon Raman transitions allow to create a coherent superposition of spatially separated states and thus realize an atom interferometer to measure the variation of the potential in the vertical direction. Given the high position dependence of atom-surface interaction forces, a very high spatial resolution of the sensor is required. A micrometric spatial resolution of the force measurement is achieved by reducing the size of the atomic source using evaporative cooling. The relative sensitivity, obtained for the measurement of the gravitational force, of 5 x 10-6 at 1 s, which averages down to 8 x 10-8 in 1 h, is at the state of the art for such a spatial resolution. Improving this resolution implies an increase in atomic density. A study of atomic interactions is then carried out in the particular configuration of our trapped atom interferometer where we have a coherent control over the wavepackets overlap. In order to improve the spatial resolution further, we will select a single eigenstate of the system. For that, we lift the degeneracy of the energy increment between adjacent wells using a super-lattice.
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Xavier Alauze. Optimisation d'un capteur de force à atomes ultrafroids piégés dans un réseau optique. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Sorbonne Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SORUS215⟩. ⟨tel-02489769⟩

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