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Analyse et Modélisation des relations structure-fonctions chez le Teck (Tectona grandis) de plantation au Togo

Abstract : To answer forestry production goals, Togo has implemented a policy of intensive plantations dedicated to various tree species of rapid growth. Among these plantations, the most important are those of teak because of the size of areas planted and of the exceptional quality of teak wood. This thesis focuses on the interactions between the development of tree architecture of Tectona grandis (teak) and the formation of its wood to better characterize the variability of the physical and mechanical properties of the wood according to the provenance and different silvicultural treatments. The study was conducted on a private teak forest station located at Agbavé (0°45' E, 6°43' N), a village about eight kilometers west of Avétonou, Agou prefecture, in South-West of Togo. Two approaches are used: the first one is experimental and combined retrospective analysis of tree growth and analysis of wood properties by near infrared spectroscopy method. The architectural features studied are growth, ontogeny, flowering and immediate reiteration (establishment of the first fork in the crown), while the key properties measured are wood basic density and modulus of elasticity. This study has shown on one hand that the stabilization of the radial growth is associated with a reduction in height growth with a delay of occurrence; on the other hand it highlighted a significant relationship between the flowering of teak and the physical properties of the wood. The second method is based on a modeling approach using the functional-structural model GreenLab. This method allowed us to determine the sink strength parameters and sources of the plant that are not experimentally accessible. Obtaining values of these parameters by reversing the model has a major interest in research to improve wood quality, as a major factor of the distribution of dry biomass is the individual demand for biomass of each organ of the plant. Moreover, it is the supply relationships (carbon sources) and sinks (cost of construction and maintenance of organs) between different plant organs that determines its overall development. The modeling work performed here can be considered as preliminary but it provides the basis for building a predictive model to simulate the development of teak subjected to various cultural practices and in contrasting environments. This thesis provides a model for the growth of many types of trees that follow the same architectural development.
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Kodjo Tondjo. Analyse et Modélisation des relations structure-fonctions chez le Teck (Tectona grandis) de plantation au Togo. Systématique, phylogénie et taxonomie. Université de Lomé (Togo), 2016. Français. ⟨tel-02489455⟩



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