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Nanoparticules fluorescentes cœur-coquille organique@silicates pour l'imagerie vasculaire in vivo

Abstract : The aim of this work is the synthesis, optimization and functionalization of organic@inorganic core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), which constitute a novel class of nanoparticulate tracers, to be used for two-photon deep tissue imaging of tumor vascularization. These core-shell NPs, which comprise an organic dye nanocrystal core (ca 40-50 nm) surrounded by a silicate crust, are synthesized using an original spray-drying method developed in our group. This process is based on the confined nucleation and growth of an organic nanocrystal concomitantly with the formation of a silicate crust by fast drying of sprayed droplets containing silicate oligomers, organic dye and solvent under an air flux at 150-200 °C. This one-step synthesis is made possible thanks to the control of both the sol-gel chemistry (polycondensation) and the nanocrystallization process, which occur simultaneously. Alkoxide precursors, TMOS (tetramethoxysilane) and TMSE (1.2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane) are chosen to form the silicate shell. Additionally, an organosilane, (3-azidopropyl) triethoxysilane (AzPTES), is used to impart an azide functionality to the NPs for further functionalization with alkyne-modified moieties using the Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of organic azides to alkynes (CuAAC). The organic dyes for the nanocrystalline core are non-commercial and designed to exhibit high fluorescence intensity in the solid state under two-photon excitation in the near infrared (biological window) and the appropriate physico-chemical properties to enable their nanocrystallization. Spherical defect-free NPs were obtained. Colloidal NP suspensions were obtained after a basic partial dissolution of the shells of the NPs followed by acidic neutralization to pH 7.4, to match the pH of physiological media.In order to provide long circulation time of the NPs in the bloodstream to enable the use of these NPs as tracers for deep-tissue imaging, the synthesized NPs were derivatized with different moieties to improve their colloidal stability by charge/steric stabilization. The effects of the functionalization were studied using different characterization tools such as fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential under physiological conditions.Functionalization with different forms of alkyne-modified polyethylene glycol (PEG), differing in chain length and structure was done using CuAAC, to render them furtive and increase their circulation time in the bloodstream. The functionalized NPs, when compared with the initial core shell NPs (prior to functionalization) using IR spectroscopy, showed positive results, with reduction in the azide band intensity and appearance of bands corresponding to the C-H bonds of the PEG in the functionalized NPs. DLS performed on colloidal suspensions of the core-shell NPs functionalized with a long-chain (Mn :5000) PEG in two media, (a) water and (b) Simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, each tested at two different temperatures (i) 25 °C and (ii) 37 °C resulted in size distributions centered at less than 200 nm in all four cases, thereby indicating stability of the functionalized core-shell NP suspensions under physiological conditions. Fluorescence spectroscopy of the NP suspensions before and after functionalization also exhibited good results, with comparable brightness after functionalization, suggesting that no quenching occurred in the presence of Cu salts. The colloidal suspensions were found to have lost less than 10 % of the fluorescence signal, suggesting colloidal stability.The interactions of these core-shell NPs with different plasma proteins were also investigated, with minimal aggregation in the presence of high concentrations of proteins. Two-photon fluorescence imaging tests in mice are underway. In conclusion, bright, red-emitting core-shell NPs have been produced, which are promising for use in bio-imaging.
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Shridevi Shenoi Perdoor. Nanoparticules fluorescentes cœur-coquille organique@silicates pour l'imagerie vasculaire in vivo. Matériaux. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAV063⟩. ⟨tel-02489142⟩

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