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La fabrique du "problème lapin" : enquête et tentative de dénouement d'un problème hybride en contexte péri-urbain. Le cas de la Seine-Saint-Denis

Abstract : The synanthropic nature of some species or simply their presence in urban environments poses a number of questions when it comes to humans coexisting with these species. More specifically, green spaces in urban and peri-urban areas favour the presence of animals and plants which are unwanted or too numerous. This can create conflicts with, and between, humans. The resolution of these conflicts raises questions of concern to conservation scientists about the threats they represent to humans and non humans. However, their complexity makes their resolution difficult to the point of making them unmanageable problems. This thesis aims to analyse the construction of the problem of human / animal coexistence by trying to understand the resistances associated with it. In this context, since the 1980s, the urban parks of Seine-Saint-Denis, here the parc du Sausset and parc Georges-Valbon, have experienced management difficulties with a familiar species: the wild rabbit. The latter causes indeed "damage" to trees, lawns, embankments and tracks in areas with considerable landscape issues. Despite the diversity of management techniques deployed or the use of multiple forms of expertise, the "rabbit problem" still persists in parks. Using an ethnographic approach including semi-directive interviews, participant observations and administrative archive consultations, this thesis retraces the genesis of the "rabbit problem". It includes the history of rabbit management in parks since 1980. Based on this historical background, the discussions, controversies and disputes concerning the rabbit are analyzed by seeking to identify the "resistances" that make this problem so difficult to resolve. These resistances are as much linked to the rabbit's ability to escape control devices as to the multiple functionalities of the parks and the historical and organisational haracteristics of management systems. Within park management institutions, this work led to the setting up of workshops based on group analysis (Mercier et De Muelenaere, 2007). They made it possible to validate the given history, to identify convergences and divergences of interpretation of this problem and to co-construct three possible management scenarios in view of the surveys carried out. Through this experiment, this thesis questions both the modalities of solving the problems of human / animal coexistence, and also endeavours to reveal how the "rabbit problem" questions the identity of the parks, by summoning the mythological figure of the "Trickster".
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Léo Martin. La fabrique du "problème lapin" : enquête et tentative de dénouement d'un problème hybride en contexte péri-urbain. Le cas de la Seine-Saint-Denis. Environnement et Société. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019MNHN0007⟩. ⟨tel-02487593⟩

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