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Étude des mécanismes moléculaires associés aux effets de l'ODN sur des cellules astrogliales et microgliales soumises à un stress oxydant : impact sur le métabolisme lipidique et la mort cellulaire

Abstract : Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by oxidative stress associated with mitochondrial damages leading to neuronal cell death. To mitigate these damages and promote neuronal cytoprotection and neurogenesis, endogenous (Neuropeptide: octadecaneuropeptide (ODN)) or exogenous (Polyphenols: resveratrol (RSV) and apigenin (API)) natural neurotrophic factors could be used as therapeutic agents to promote neuronal differentiation of immature and pluripotent stem cells. ODN is a peptide produced by astrocytes and known as a powerful neuroprotective agent. It is therefore of interest of studying its effects on the mobilization of calcium, its ability to protect neuronal cells against apoptosis death caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and evaluate its ability to stimulate neurogenesis by promoting neuronal differentiation. The effects of polyphenols (RSV, API), major compounds of the Mediterranean diet, on neurogenesis were also evaluated.The cytoprotective and/or differentiating properties of ODN (10-16 -10-8 M) and polyphenols (RSV: 6.25 -50 μM, API: 6.25 -50 μM) were mainly studied on murine N2a neuroblastoma cells but also on other murine (BV-2, C6) and human (SK-N-BE, CCF-STTG1) nerve lines. Cytoprotection was measured by various viability tests (FDA, MTT, DiOC6(3), propidium iodide). Differentiation was morphologically evaluated by the presence of neurites (axons and dendrites) and visualized by different microscopical techniques. Retinoic acid (RA: 6.25-50 μM) was used as a positive inductor of differentiation. The signaling pathways involved in neuronal differentiation have been characterized. We also studied the effect of ODN (10-14 M, 48 h) on the morphology, topography and activity of mitochondria and peroxisome during differentiation. These two organelles are involved in the metabolism of lipids (fatty acids, cholesterol).The results obtained show that ODN is able to promote the survival of N2a cells cultured under the conditions of acute oxidative stress induced by H2O2. In addition, ODN as well as polyphenols (RSV and API), which lack intrinsic cytotoxic effects, stimulate neurite outgrowth, indicating that they exert pro-differentiating neurotrophic effects. This effect of ODN involves activation of its metabotropic receptor associated with intracellular transduction pathways PKA, PKC and MAPK / ERKs. In addition, ODN stimulates the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes, essential organelles in axonal activity (axonal transport and renewal). The study of signaling pathways demonstrate that the trophic effects of RSV and API involve the activation of PKC, PKA and MAPK / ERK transduction pathways.Based on these results, the ODN release could be an endogenous protective mechanism in response to oxidative attacks and process of neurodegeneration, preventing cell death and promoting neuronal cell differentiation. Our work also highlights for the first time that polyphenols, in addition to their antioxidant activity, stimulate the formation, maturation and elongation of neurites of undifferentiated N2a cells. All of this work indicates that ODN neuropeptide and polyphenols (RSV and API) are potent neurotrophic agents. These molecules and/or their synthetic analogues may have pharmacological interest for treating neurodegenerative diseases by promoting neuroprotection, neuro-repair and neurogenesis.
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Submitted on : Monday, February 17, 2020 - 8:26:09 AM
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Amira Namsi. Étude des mécanismes moléculaires associés aux effets de l'ODN sur des cellules astrogliales et microgliales soumises à un stress oxydant : impact sur le métabolisme lipidique et la mort cellulaire. Chimie organique. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté; laboratoire de neurophysiologie fonctionnelle et pathologies UR11ES/09, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019UBFCK056⟩. ⟨tel-02480736⟩



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